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Michigan State Profile Fiscal Year 2007

The Department of Community Health and community-based organizations in Michigan received $5,057,510 in federal funds for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Fiscal Year 2007. 1

Back to FY07 State Profiles

 

Michigan Sexuality Education Law and Policy

Michigan does not require schools to teach sexuality education; however, the state does require schools to provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV/AIDS education. STD/HIV education must include “the teaching of abstinence from sex as a responsible method for restriction and prevention of these diseases and as a positive lifestyle for unmarried young people.”

Schools may also offer sexuality education classes, which cover family planning, human sexuality, and family life education. As with STD/HIV education, abstinence must be included as “a responsible method of preventing unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and as a positive lifestyle for unmarried young people.” Sexuality education classes must be offered as an elective and may not be required for graduation.

All sexuality education and HIV/AIDS classes must be taught by teachers qualified to teach health education. All teachers of STD/HIV education who are not licensed healthcare professionals must be trained in HIV/AIDS education by the Department of Education.

School boards must establish an advisory board to review all materials and curricula. This advisory board must include parents, students, educators, clergy, and health professionals. Each school district must also appoint a sexuality education program supervisor; this person must be approved by the state.

The law further states that all instruction in reproductive health “shall be supervised by a registered physician, a registered nurse, or other person certified by the state board as qualified.” Reproductive health is defined as “the state of an individual’s well-being which involves the reproductive system and its physiological, psychological, and endocrinological functions.” Abortion “shall not be considered a method of family planning, nor shall abortion be taught as a method of reproductive health.” Further, no school official or school board member may dispense any family planning drug or device in school, nor may they make abortion referrals. Districts found in violation of this may face corrective actions, such as being forced to forfeit aid. All curricula must be approved by the local school board and if any changes are made, the local school board must hold at least two public hearings on the revisions.

Most Michigan public schools also follow guidelines from the Michigan Model for Health, formerly the Michigan Model for Comprehensive School Health Education, which promotes nationally recognized and research-based curricula, including new curricula in HIV/AIDS prevention. In addition, the Michigan Board of Education has adopted the Policy to Promote Health and Prevent Disease and Pregnancy which states that sexuality education programs must be age-appropriate, developmentally and culturally appropriate, medically accurate, and based on effective programming.

Parents must receive notification of any sexuality education class and be allowed to review its content. Parents or guardians may remove their children from any part of the STD/HIV instruction if it conflicts with their religious beliefs. This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.

See Michigan School Code Sections 380.1169, 380.1170, 380.1506, 380.1507, 388.1766, 388.1766a, Michigan Model for Health, and Michigan Public Law 165 and 166.

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Recent Legislation

Bill to Require HPV Information for Some Rising 6th Graders

Senate Bill 416, introduced in April 2007,  would require “schools that provide information on immunizations, infectious disease, medications or other school health issues to parents/guardians of students in or entering grade 6” to include information about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine. The bill was sent to second reading in the House in February 2008.

Legislation to Extend Civil Rights Act

House Bill 4160, introduced in January 2007, would have amended the Elliot-Larsen Civil Rights Act, extending it to include sexual orientation and gender identity/expression as protected categories. The bill was sent to the House Committee on Judiciary in January 2007 and died.

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Events of Note

Proposal to Make Education More Inclusive Passed
June 2007; Farmington Hills, MI

In June, the Farmington School District overturned one of its long-held policies by passing a proposal that will allow teachers to answer students’ questions about sexual orientation.2 Many administrators endorsed the change, which was recommended by the district’s Sex Education Advisory Board, even though some parents remain hesitant.

School districts in Michigan vary widely on how (or even if) they address homosexuality. Prior to this decision, teachers in Farmington Hills were told not to provide any input on questions related to sexual orientation and instead to tell young people to ask their parents.3        

The new proposal allows for written questions from students in fourth grade and either written or verbal questions from those in or above fifth grade. Teachers will be given a manual with standardized answers to typical questions students might ask and must provide those answers. Parents who do not want their children to hear these answers may opt-out of the program if they chose to do so.4

In response to the change, some parents have accused the district of promoting a “gay lifestyle.” One parent stated, “I’m very pro-education and I’m a physician, but I just feel there’s a pro-gay and lesbian agenda here. I accept all people, but I think that goes against a lot of family morals.”5

Most community members, however, have been supportive of the proposal. A principal in the district noted, “By the time students get to the sixth grade, they know a lot, but a lot of it is not factual. What we want to do is answer the questions in a factual manner.” The superintendent explained that the new policy is “in the best interest of all students because it includes the efforts of parents, students, and educators.”6 

The new policy went into effect at the start of the 2007–08 school year.

School District Chooses Comprehensive Sex Ed to Prevent STDs, Teen Pregnancy
March 2007; Ypsilanti, MI

The Ypsilanti Board of Education and administrators in the district were prompted to introduce a comprehensive sexual health curriculum after learning that the county had a disproportionately high rate of teenage pregnancy and STDs.7 With the support of a majority of parents, Ypsilanti School District’s Reproductive Health Advisory Board set to revising the sexuality education curriculum for public schools.

The advisory board recommended that sexuality education start in fourth grade and continue through high school. The curriculum would include information about “abstinence, puberty, relationships, sexual abuse, refusal skills, contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.”8  The committee also recommended additional topics such as maturation, sex in the media, communication, and healthy relationships. The committee, which is made up of community members, clergy, district representatives, health professionals, and parents, presented the proposal for the new curriculum at two public meetings.

One school board member said, “The new curriculum, when ultimately finalized and adopted, will hopefully represent a more comprehensive, integrated approach to teaching the material.” The co-chair of the board added that students will benefit from the revised curriculum “by learning the skills they need to enjoy long and healthy lives.”9

FBI, State Deem Books Legal after Obscenity Complaints
March 2007; Howell, MI

Federal, state, and county prosecutors declined prosecution against the Howell School Board in Howell, Michigan despite complaints from a local group that books used in Howell High School’s AP English classes were obscene.

The controversy began after citizens’ group, The Livingston Organization for Values in Education (LOVE), complained that a number of books used in Advanced Placement English classes were profane and pornographic.10 Specifically, LOVE complained about Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye, Richard Wright’s Black Boy, Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five, Erin Gruwell’s The Freedom Writers Diary, and Augusten Burroughs’ Running with Scissors.11

In a press release, a LOVE spokesperson compared the five books to Penthouse and Playboy magazines, saying that they “contain similarly graphic material in written form [and] are equally inappropriate.”12 LOVE’s President called Morrison’s The Bluest Eye a “graphic child rape book.”13

In February 2007, the group demanded that the books be removed from the curriculum, filing formal complaints with the Howell School Board, the District and U.S. Attorney’s Offices and the Michigan Attorney General. The group also requested an investigation by the FBI.

On February 12, the school board voted 5–2 to reject LOVE’s complaint.14  “We should be very careful about dismissing literary works because they test our belief system or challenge our values,” said the district superintendent.15

The FBI, Michigan Attorney General, and Livingston County District Attorney found that the books included in Howell High School’s curriculum had literary merit and did not violate local, state, or federal laws on obscenity, pornography, or endangering the welfare of minors.16 In a letter to LOVE on March 2, the County District Prosecutor concluded that the books are legal on two grounds. “Since the school board has approved use of these books, the teachers and administrators have complied with the school code and are excepted from criminal prosecution under the statute,” he explained.17

Further, to qualify as obscene, a book must be found to appeal only to readers’ prurient interest in sex and to have no literary or educational merit.18 He continued, “After reading the books in question, it is clear that the explicit passages illustrated a larger literary, artistic, or political message and were not included solely to appeal to the prurient interests of minors.”19

Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and U.S. Attorney Stephen Murphy agreed. Both declined prosecution.20  The books continue to be used in Howell High School’s AP English classes.

Debate over Gay-Straight Alliance
November 2006; Okemos, MI

A Gay-Straight Alliance group in Okemos High School has drawn both opposition from parents who believe the group promotes homosexuality and support from parents who believe diversity and tolerance are necessary in Okemos.

In October, the group had put up fliers around school. One father denounced the advertisements as “obscene,” while a mother claimed the administration’s refusal to remove the posters shows insensitivity to Christian students.21

A group of parents opposed to the club sent emails to other parents in the district claiming that the GSA promotes an unacceptable lifestyle and urging action against the club. One parent said, “We view this as an undermined attempt to mainstream the homosexual agenda in our public schools.”22

The superintendent said any club is allowed to exist in Okemos School District unless it promotes violence or discrimination. He added that the school district cannot “say no to this club and yes to that one.”23

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Michigan’s Youth: Statistical Information of Note24

  1. In 2005, 41% of female high school students and 44% of male high school students in Michigan reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.25
  2. In 2007, 3% of female high school students and 7% of male high school students in Michigan reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
  3. In 2007, 11% of female high school students and 13% of male high school students in Michigan reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
  4. In 2007, 31% of female high school students and 29% of male high school students in Michigan reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
  5. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 58% of females and 73% of males in Michigan reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
  6. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 25% of females and 13% of males in Michigan reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
  7. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 21% of females and 25% of males in Michigan reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
  8. In 2007, 90% of high school students in Michigan reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.

Detroit, Michigan

  1. In 2007, 51% of female high school students and 69% of male high school students in Detroit, Michigan reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
  2. In 2007, 4% of female high school students and 24% of male high school students in Detroit, Michigan reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
  3. In 2007, 12% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students in Detroit, Michigan reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
  4. In 2007, 35% of female high school students and 44% of male high school students in Detroit, Michigan reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
  5. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 62% of females and 77% of males in Detroit, Michigan reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
  6. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 12% of females and 4% of males in Detroit, Michigan reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
  7. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 12% of females and 14% of males in Detroit, Michigan reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
  8. In 2007, 84% of high school students in Detroit, Michigan reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.

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Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Funding

The Michigan Department of Community Health received $1,417,131 in federal Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage programs funding in Fiscal Year 2007. The Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage grant requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. Michigan provides matching funds of $521,886 out of the state’s pregnancy-prevention dollars. The remainder of the match is provided by sub-grantees through in-kind services and funds.

The Michigan Abstinence Program (MAP) aims to positively impact adolescent health by promoting abstinence from sexual activity and related risky behaviors such as the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. MAP offers several posters with abstinence-related messages for purchase to sub-grantees and the community at large.

The Michigan Department of Community Health, through MAP, funds 11 sub-grantees: Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona Educational Service District, Catholic Social Services of Muskegon, District Health Department #10 of Cadillac, Eaton Intermediate School District, Mid Michigan Community Action Agency, Jackson County, Lakeshore Pregnancy Center, Macomb Family YMCA, St. John Community Health Investment Corp, Tuscola Intermediate School District, and Wedgwood Christian Youth and Family Services.

Lakeshore Pregnancy Center is a crisis pregnancy center (CPC). Crisis pregnancy centers typically advertise as providing medical services and then use anti-abortion propaganda, misinformation, and fear and shame tactics to dissuade women facing unintended pregnancy from exercising their right to choose. On its website, the CPC discusses options for an unintended pregnancy. On the “Abortion” page, Lakeshore Pregnancy Center lists emergency contraception (EC) as a form of abortion.26  Sometimes EC is confused with the RU- 486 or mifepristone, often called the “abortion pill.” EC is not the same thing and cannot end a pregnancy. The FDA explains that EC works by delaying or inhibiting ovulation or inhibiting implantation. If an egg has already implanted in a woman’s uterus, EC will not terminate the pregnancy nor will it harm the developing fetus.27     

The Wedgwood Christian Center, which is both a Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage sub-grantee and a CBAE grantee, describes itself as “a distinctively Christian, professionally excellent community of caring, dedicated to helping young people live productive and fulfilling lives. For more than 45 years, we’ve been extending God's love through prevention, educational, counseling and residential services.”28

The organization conducts an abstinence-only-until-marriage program called “Pure Passion for Fashion (P2).” Pure Passion for Fashion has been implemented in six communities throughout Michigan, and “engages teens with an innovative blend of fashion, drama, music, and a high energy abstinence until marriage message.”29 This program is specifically designed to address the “issues of modest dress and abstaining from sex until marriage.”30 Pure Passion for Fashion has reportedly reached 9,300 teenagers and parents throughout Michigan.

Wedgwood Christian Center also brings in the abstinence-only-until-marriage speaker, David Mahan to address students.31 On Mr. Mahan’s website (www.frontlineyc.com), the speaker discusses STDs, condoms, and teen pregnancy.32  Mr. Mahan presents information on condoms focusing on exaggerated failure methods, and offers no information on other forms of contraception.

[Question]: If you wear a condom can you still catch an STD?

[Answer]: Yes. A lot happens during sexual activity that can make condoms ineffective in preventing STD’s. Condoms can break. Condoms can slip off. Fluid produced by the vagina could be infected and spread beyond where a condom covers. Also, STD’s can infect many parts of the body such as the mouth, anus, throat, the areas around the genitals and the eyes. How many areas does a condom cover??? What good is a condom on the penis going to do if the infected area is under the pubic hair? The bottom line is ... there is no such thing as “Safe Sex” and “Safer Sex” just isn't safe enough.33

Although this is possible, according to a study in Consumer Reports, “with correct use, a condom will break as little as 2 percent of the time, authorities believe, and will slip off as little as 1 percent of the time.”34 It is inappropriate for an educator to deliberately undermine young people’s faith in condoms. This will not prevent young people from engaging in sexual activity but may prevent them from using condoms when they do become sexually active thereby increasing their risk for STDs and unintended pregnancy. 

One of the abstinence-only-until-marriage programs used by other sub-grantees in Michigan is Worth the Wait.35  SIECUS reviewed Worth the Wait and found that it covers some important topics related to sexuality such as puberty, anatomy, and sexual abuse, and that the curriculum is based on reliable sources of data. Despite these strengths, Worth the Wait relies on messages of fear, discourages contraceptive use, and promotes biased views of gender, marriage, and pregnancy options. For example, the curriculum explains, “teenage sexual activity can create a multitude of medical, legal, and economic problems not only for the individuals having sex but for society as a whole.”36

Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Evaluation

The Michigan Department of Community Health conducted an evaluation of its abstinence-only-until-marriage programming in 2000.37 The evaluation utilized a pre- and post- test design. In its review of 17 programs, only five were found to have statistically significant levels of change in attitudes and beliefs in the post-test.  

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Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) and Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) Grantees

There are six CBAE grantees in Michigan: Bethany Christian Services, New Genesis, Inc., Providence-St. John Health, St. Joseph Health System, Wedgwood Christian Services, and YMCA of Metropolitan Detroit. There are two AFLA grantees in Michigan: Ingham County Health Department and Planned Parenthood of Northern Michigan.

Bethany Christian Services is headquartered in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and describes itself as “a not-for-profit, pro-life, Christian adoption and family service agency.”38 Among other things, its website contains inaccurate medical information about abortion. Under a heading reading, “Breast Cancer Link,” the site states “There has been some evidence that breast cancer is linked with abortion.”39 However, in February 2003, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 100 experts on pregnancy and breast cancer who reviewed “existing population-based, clinical, and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortion” and concluded that induced abortion is not linked to an increase in the risk of breast cancer.40

St. Joseph Health System, another CBAE grantee, is part of the Rural Prevention Network’s Northeast Abstinence Partnership.41 St. Joseph Health System and the Northeast Abstinence Partnership run the abstinence-only-until-marriage program “Taking Charge.”42 Taking Charge conducts programming in sixth through twelfth grade in 15 different school districts throughout Michigan.43 Taking Charge uses several different abstinence-only-until-marriage curricula, including Choosing the Best PATH and Choosing the Best LIFE.44

SIECUS reviewed Choosing the Best PATH and found that it provides endless information on the negative consequences of premarital sexual activity and utilizes a variety of tactics to suggest that teens should feel guilty, embarrassed, and ashamed of sexual behavior. For example, Choosing the Best PATH asks students, “How does being sexually active as a teen affect how a person feels about himself or herself?” The suggested answer is, “Can feel sad about losing virginity, loss of self-respect, blames self for getting pregnant or contracting an STD.” It goes on to say, “Sexual activity also can lead to the trashing of a person’s reputation, resulting in the loss of friends.”45

In addition, SIECUS reviewed Choosing the Best LIFE and found that it names numerous physical and psychological consequences of premarital sexual activity, suggests that sexually active teens will never have happy futures, and implies that only teens with low self-esteem and poor judgment become sexually active. For example, Choosing the Best LIFE states, “Relationships often lower the self-respect of both partners—one feeling used, the other feeling like the user. Emotional pain can cause a downward spiral leading to intense feelings of lack of worthlessness.”46 (See the Title V section for information on Wedgwood Christian Services.)

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Federal and State Funding for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programs in FY 2007

Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Grantee Length of Grant Amount of Grant Type of Grant (includes Title V, CBAE, AFLA, and other funds)

Michigan Department of Community Health

www.michigan.gov/mdch

$1,417,131 federal
$521,250 state

Title V

Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona Educational Service District
www.amaesd.k12.mi.us

$150,886

Title V sub-grantee

Catholic Social Services of Muskegon
www.dioceseofgrandrapids.org

$113,890

Title V sub-grantee

District Health Department #10 of Cadillac
www.malph.org/page.cfm/79

$162,000

Title V sub-grantee

Eaton Intermediate School District
www.eaton.k12.mi.us

$162,000

Title V sub-grantee

Mid Michigan Community Action Agency
(Fiduciary of the Yes! Coalition)
http://yescoalition.org

$162,000

Title V sub-grantee

Jackson County
www.co.jackson.mi.us

$149,385

Title V sub-grantee

Lakeshore Pregnancy Center
www.lakeshorepregnancycenter.com

$115,250

Title V sub-grantee

Macomb Family YMCA
www.ymcametrodetroit.org/ branches/macomb.asp

$162,000

Title V sub-grantee

St. John Community Health Investment Corp.
www.stjohn.org

$192,000

Title V sub-grantee

Tuscola Intermediate School District
www.tisd.k12.mi.us

$115,500

Title V sub-grantee

Wedgwood Christian Services

$162,000

Title V sub-grantee

DUAL GRANTEE
2005–2008
www.wedgwood.org

$403,061

CBAE

Bethany Christian Services
2006–2011

$600,000

CBAE

New Genesis, Inc.
2004–2007
www.newgenesisinc.org

$737,925

CBAE

Providence-St. John Health
2004–2007

$252,516

CBAE

St. Joseph Health System
2005–2008
www.sjhysy.org
www.choosingtowait.com

$642,825

CBAE

YMCA of Metropolitan Detroit
2007–2011

$600,000

CBAE

Ingham County Health Department
2004–2009
www.ingham.org/hd/health. htm

$276,826

AFLA

Planned Parenthood of Northern Michigan
2002–2007
www.planned parenthood.org/northern-michigan/

$127,226

AFLA

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Adolescent Health Contact47
Taggert Doll
Adolescent and School Health Education Coordinator
Michigan Department of Community Health
109 W. Michigan Avenue, 4th Floor
Lansing, MI 48913
Phone: (517) 335-8908

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Michigan Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education

AIDS Partnership Michigan
2751 East Jefferson, Suite 301
Detroit, MI 48207
Phone: (800) 515-3434
www.aidspartnership.org

Michigan National Organization for Women
P.O. Box 860
East Lansing, MI 48826
Phone: (517) 485-9687
www.michnow.org

Michigan Religious Coalition for
Reproductive Choice
P.O. Box 739
East Lansing, MI 48826
www.mircrc.org

Planned Parenthood Affiliates of Michigan
P.O. Box 19104
Lansing, MI 48901
Phone: (517) 482-1080
www.miplannedparenthood.org

Triangle Foundation
19641 West Seven Mile Rd.
Detroit, MI 48219
Phone: (313) 537-3323
www.tri.org

 

Michigan Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education

Michigan Family Forum
P.O. Box 15216
Lansing, MI 48901
Phone: (517) 374-1171
www.michiganfamily.org

Right to Life of Michigan
2340 Porter St. SW
P.O. Box 901
Grand Rapids, MI 49519
Phone: (616) 532-2300
www.rtl.org


Newspapers in Michigan48

The Ann Arbor News
Newsroom
340 E. Huron St.
P.O. Box 1147
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone: (734) 994-6989
www.mlive.com/annarbornews

Detroit News
Newsroom
615 W. Lafayette Blvd.
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: (313) 222-2300
www.detnews.com

Flint Journal
Newsroom
200 E. First St.
Flint, MI 48502-1925
810-766-6100
www.mlive.com/flintjournal

Grand Rapids Press
Newsroom
155 Michigan St. N.W.
Grand Rapids, MI 49503
Phone: (616) 222-5400
www.mlive.com/grpress

Kalamazoo Gazette
Newsroom
401 S. Burdick St.
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Phone: (269) 345-3511
www.mlive.com/kzgazette

Lansing State Journal
Newsroom
120 E. Lenawee
Lansing MI 48919
Phone: (517) 377-1020
www.lsj.com

The Macomb Daily
Newsroom
100 Macomb Daily Dr.
Mount Clemens, MI 48043
Phone: (586) 469-4510
www.macombdaily.com

Muskegon Chronicle
Newsroom
P.O. Box 59
Muskegon, MI 49443-0059
Phone: (231) 722-0320
www.mlive.com/chronicle

The Oakland Press
Newsroom
48 W. Huron
Pontiac, MI 48342
Phone: (248) 332-8181
www.theoaklandpress.com

The Saginaw News
Newsroom
203 S. Washington Ave.
Saginaw, MI 48607
Phone: (989) 752-7171
www.mlive.com/saginawnews

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References

  1. This refers to the fiscal year for the federal government which begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2007 begins on October 1, 2006 and ends on September 30, 2007. 
  2. Shawn Lewis, “School: New Sex Ed Will Help Keep Kids Safe,” The Detroit News, 20 June 2007, accessed 21 June 2007, <www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070620/METRO02/706200375/1003/METRO>.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Lewis, “Sex Ed Proposal Stirs Controversy,” The Detroit News, 30 May 2007, accessed 19 June 2007,
    <http://detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070530/SCHOOLS/705300378/1026>.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Sally Keskitalo, “School Revises Sex Ed,” The Eastern Echo (MI), 5 March 2007, accessed 15 March 2007, <www.easternecho.com/cgi-bin/story.cgi?11666>.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Ibid.
  11.   “Feds, State Won’t Pursue Obscene-Book Claims,” First Amendment Center, 11 March 2007, accessed 19 March 2007, <www.firstamendmentcenter.org/%5Cnews.aspx?id=18269>.
  12. Jim Brown and Jenni Parker, “Feds Asked to Investigate ‘Obscenity’ in School Curriculum,” OneNewsNow.com, 1 March 2007, accessed 8 March 2008,
    <www.onenewsnow.com/2007/03/feds_asked_to_investigate_obsc.php>.
  13. “FBI To Review Claims That Books Used In Mich. School Are Obscene,” First Amendment Center, 2 March 2007, accessed 19 March 2007, <www.firstamendmentcenter.org/news.aspx?id=18234>.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Dan Meisler, “Controversial Books Cleared,” Daily Press & Argus (MI), 6 March 2007, accessed 19 March 2007, <www.dailypressandargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070306/NEWS01/703060318/1002>.
  16. “FBI To Review Claims.”; Meisler, “Controversial Books Cleared.”
  17. Ibid.
  18. “FBI To Review Claims.”
  19. Ibid.
  20. “Feds, State Won’t Pursue Obscene-Book Claims.”
  21. “Gay Straight School Club Angering Parents,” 6 News WLNS, 6 November 2006, accessed 9 November 2006, <http://www.wlns.com/Global/story.asp?S=5640988&nav=0RbQ>.
  22. “Parents Speak Out Against Gay-Straight Club,” 6 News WLNS, 8 November 2006, accessed 9 November 2006, <http://www.wlns.com/Global/story.asp?S=5650016>.
  23. “Gay Straight School Club Angering Parents.”
  24. Unless otherwise cited, all statistical information comes from: Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57.SS-4 (6 June 2008), accessed 4 June 2008, http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm>.
  25. Danice K. Eaton, et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2005,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 55, no. SS-5 (9 June 2006): 1-108, accessed 26 January 2007, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm>.
  26. “Abortion,” Lakeshore Pregnancy Center, accessed 22 May 2008, < http://www.lpcenters.com/>.
  27. Food and Drug Administration, “Prescription Drug Products; Certain Combined Oral Contraceptives for Use as Postcoital Emergency Contraception,” Federal Register 62.37 (1997): 8609-8612; Rachel K. Jones, et. al. “Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in 2000-2001,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34.6 (Nov./Dec. 2002): 294-303.
  28. “Wedgewood Christian Services,” Wedgewood Christian Services, accessed 4 April 2008, < http://www.wedgwood.org/>.
  29. “Our Services: West Michigan Positive Youth Development,” Wedgwood Christian Services, accessed 4 April 2008, <http://www.wedgwood.org/syouth.html>.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. “FAQ,” Frontline Youth Communications, accessed 4 April 2008, < http://www.frontlineyc.com/faq/>.
  33. Ibid.
  34. “Condoms Get Better,” Consumer Reports, June 1999, p. 46.
  35. “Michigan Abstinence Partnership Year End Report,” Michigan Department of Health, accessed 4 April 2008,
    <http://www.mphi.org/files/Michigan%20Abstinence%20Program%20Annual%20Report%202001.pdf>.
  36. Patricia Sulak, Worth the Wait (Temple, TX: Scott & White Memorial Hospital, 2003). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Worth the Wait at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
  37. Ibid. 
  38. “About Us: Bethany’s history,” Bethany Christian Services, (2008), accessed 20 March 2008, <http://www.bethany.org/A55798/bethanyWWW.nsf/0/C232C8DA99A0BA8685256CF200083E24>.
  39. “Abortion v. Adoption,” Bethany Christian Services, (2008), accessed 20 March 2008, <http://www.bethany.org/A55798/bethanyWWW.nsf/0/549D2239D7BD992C85256D1A0048194B>.
  40. National Cancer Institute, “Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk,” 30 May 2003, accessed 30 January 2007, <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/abortion-miscarriage>.
  41. “About Us,” Taking Charge, (2008), accessed 20 March 2008, <http://www.choosingtowait.com/aboutus.html>.
  42. Ibid.
  43. “Programs,” Taking Charge, (2008), accessed 20 March 2008, <http://www.choosingtowait.com/programs.html>.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best PATH  (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best Inc., 2000). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Choosing the Best PATH at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
  46. Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best LIFE  (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best Inc., 2000). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Choosing the Best LIFE at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
  47. SIECUS has identified this person as a state-based contact for information on adolescent health and if applicable, abstinence-only-until-marriage programs.
  48. This section is a list of major newspapers in your state with contact information for their newsrooms. This list is by no means inclusive and does not contain the local level newspapers which are integral to getting your message out to your community. SIECUS strongly urges you to follow stories about the issues that concern you on the national, state, and local level by using an internet news alert service such as Google alerts, becoming an avid reader of your local papers, and establishing relationships with reporters who cover your issues. For more information on how to achieve your media goals visit the SIECUS Community Action Kit.
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