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Indiana State Profile Fiscal Year 2007

The Department of Health and community-based organizations received $3,812,439 in federal funds for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Fiscal Year 2007. 1

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Indiana requires that schools teach sexuality education. This instruction must:

  1. teach abstinence from sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for all school age children;
  2. include that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain way to avoid out-of-wedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and other associated health problems; and
  3. include that the best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases and other associated health problems is to establish a mutually faithful monogamous relationship in the context of marriage.

Each school must include instruction about HIV/AIDS and “integrate this effort to the extent possible with instruction on other dangerous communicable diseases.” This instruction must stress abstinence-until-marriage. School boards must also establish an AIDS Advisory Council, consisting of 13 “parents, students, teachers, administrators, and representatives of the state department of health.” The council must review all curricula and materials for HIV/AIDS instruction to ensure that they “reflect the standards of the community.” This council must also work in consultation with the Indiana Department of Health.

Furthermore, Indiana Code states that:

The state board shall provide information stressing the moral aspects of abstinence from sexual activity in any literature that it distributes to students and young adults concerning available methods for the prevention of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The literature must state that the best way to avoid AIDS is for young people to refrain from sexual activity until they are ready as adults to establish, in the context of marriage, a mutually faithful monogamous relationship.

Indiana does not require parental permission for students to participate in sexuality or HIV/AIDS education nor does it say whether parents or guardians may remove their children from such classes.

See Indiana Code 20-30-5-13, 20-34-1-3, and 20-34-3-17.

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Recent Legislation

Legislation to Expand High School Health Education to Include Fetal Development Component

Senate Bill 119, introduced in January 2007, would have required each Indiana school district to include detailed instruction regarding human fetal development in its high school health education curriculum. This instruction would be required to include the following topics: the result of human sperm and egg convergence, the resulting development of human conception, the health consequences of early termination of pregnancy, photographic images portraying each state of uterine fetal development, and descriptions of human fetal development. The bill was referred to the Committee on Education and Career Development in January 2007, but failed to move out of the committee.

Legislation Says that Schools Must Show Preference for Marriage

House Bill 1202, introduced in January 2006, would have required schools to show a preference for marriage above all other domestic relationships. Domestic relationships are defined as those “relationships between two adults who are sexual partners and share a residential dwelling.” The legislation was placed in the House Committee on Education in January 2006, but failed to move out of the committee.

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Events of Note

Acceptance Piece Leads to Suspension, Transfer for Journalism Teacher

November 2007; Fort Wayne, IN

After four years of service, a high school journalism teacher in Fort Wayne, IN faced the possibility of losing her job for allowing a student’s editorial about acceptance of her gay and lesbian peers to run in the school newspaper.

“I can only imagine how hard it would be to come out as homosexual in today’s society,” the controversial January piece read. “I think it is so wrong to look down on those people, or to make fun of them, just because they have a different sexuality than you.”2 The journalism teacher sought the principal’s review of a separate article about teen pregnancy that ran in the same issue but said she did not think the editorial would be controversial. 

After the publication, the principal reprimanded the educator for “insubordination” and “exposing students to inappropriate material.”3  The educator was placed on administrative leave for two months, and the county school board refused requests from both the teacher and students to hear “her case” at a public meeting. “It’s a personnel matter and it has to be one that’s dealt with through a process of procedures,” the assistant superintendent said.4

In April, the county district and the teacher settled. The journalism teacher agreed to teach at another high school, issue a formal apology, and refrain from teaching journalism for three years. Despite this, the educator received the 2007 Courage in Student Journalism Award from Newseum, the Student Press Law Center, and the National Scholastic Press Association for “a steadfast commitment to a free press when faced with pressure to abandon the First Amendment.”5

As a result of the controversy, the assistant superintendent proposed a new policy naming the principal as the official publisher of the paper. The new policy also prohibits anyone except “the publisher” from seeking legal advice “related to publication decisions.”6 Editors and staff protested the proposal by stopping the presses, but the county school board approved the new regulation.

School Board Expands Sex Ed Curriculum to Battle Teen Pregnancy
May 2007; Crawfordsville, IN

The school board in Crawfordsville, IN voted 3–2 to supplement the current abstinence-only-until-marriage curriculum with information on birth control and STD prevention in an effort to reduce teenage pregnancy in the district. Some community members applauded the addition, while others claim it is the first step on a slippery slope.7

The enhancements were recommended by the Crawfordsville Community Schools AIDS/Safe and Drug-Free Schools Advisory Committee, a group of medical and public health professionals, school staff, parents, community members, and students set up to advise the board. The high school nurse bolstered the suggestion, saying that while teachers liked “Creating Positive Relationships,” the abstinence-only-until-marriage program used in the district, “was kind of weak on teaching about HIV, disease prevention, and pregnancy prevention.”8

Although the new lesson will stress abstinence, the school nurse says, it will also inform students about contraception and sexually transmitted infections. It also has a take-home component for “opening the lines of communication” between parents and children about sexuality issues and the family’s values, morals, and culture.9 Parents, however, have the option of removing their child from the supplementary class.

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Indiana’s Youth: Statistical Information of Note10

  1. In 2007, 49% of female high school students and 49% of male high school students in Indiana reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
  2. In 2007, 5% of female high school students and 6% of male high school students in Indiana reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
  3. In 2007, 12% of female high school students and 15% of male high school students in Indiana reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
  4. In 2007, 39% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students in Indiana reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
  5. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 51% of females and 64% of males in Indiana reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
  6. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 27% of females and 20% of males in Indiana reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
  7. In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 19% of females and 29% of males in Indiana reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
  8. In 2007, 89% of high school students in Indiana reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.

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Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Funding

The Indiana State Department of Health received $754,073 in federal Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Funding in Fiscal Year 2007. The Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage grant requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. In Indiana, the state match is provided by both community-based grantees and by the statewide media campaign. 

A portion of the funding is used to run “Indiana RESPECT” (Reduces Early Sex and Pregnancy by Educating Children and Teen), a statewide adolescent pregnancy-prevention campaign.

The campaign’s website, www.indianarespect.com, includes a “Baby Cost Calculator,” a highly graphic “STD Matching Game,” and an interactive county map of Indiana that contains teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease rates areas around the state. 

Indiana RESPECT also runs a media campaign with the slogan “Sex Can Wait – You’re Worth It.”11  Like the website, this campaign frequently relies on fear and shame. For example, one poster reads, “Your virginity isn’t the only thing you’ll lose. More than 800,000 teen girls in the U.S. will get pregnant this year. And the sad fact is that many of those girls will have to put aside their future plans, hopes, and dreams to raise their babies. Live your life. Choose to wait to have sex.”12 

In addition to running the RESPECT campaign, the Indiana Department of Health distributes Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage funds to 24 sub-grantees. Four are hospitals, two are crisis pregnancy centers, two are school districts, and one is a health department. The remaining grantees are community-based organizations. 

The Women’s Care Center, Inc. is one of the sub-grantees that is a crisis pregnancy center.13  Crisis pregnancy centers typically advertise as providing medical services and then use anti-abortion propaganda, misinformation, and fear and shame tactics to dissuade women facing unintended pregnancy from exercising their right to choose. While the sub-grantee does not provide information on its abstinence-only-until-marriage program, it does provide false information on abortion on its website. Under FAQs, it states, “Nine out of every ten women who have undergone an abortion suffer deep seated anxiety and regret called post-abortion syndrome. Sometimes it appears many years later.”14  

There is no sound scientific evidence linking abortion to subsequent mental health problems, termed “post-abortion stress syndrome” by anti-abortion groups. Neither the American Psychological Association nor the American Psychiatric Association recognize “post-abortion stress syndrome” as a legitimate medical condition.15 Nevertheless, abortion opponents often refer to studies that have been found to have severe methodological flaws or cite anecdotal evidence of this condition in an effort to scare women out of exercising their right to choose.

Another sub-grantee, Creating Positive Relationships, Inc. (CPR), uses its own curriculum throughout the state of Indiana.16  The organization’s website describes the program by saying: “The CPR curriculum is based on abstinence-only education. Those who have been sexually active are encouraged to adopt ‘secondary abstinence’ as the best approach to a safe, whole life before marriage.”17 

True Life Choices, Inc. (TLC), another sub-grantee, also uses the CPR curriculum.18  The website for the organization justifies the need for such a program: “This education would not only encourage the students to recognize the value of sexual abstinence until marriage as their best choice, but it also would provide the skills needed to successfully implement the choice.”19 The organization’s website includes a section called, “TLC Leadership,” in which it profiles three women. Each of the three women refers to the Bible either in her favorite quotes or when explaining her reasons for working at the organization.20 

The True Life Choices, Inc. website also offers information about abortion much of which is biased and misleading. In the “Abortion Recovery” section, the organization claims:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops after a terrifying ordeal that involved physical harm or the threat of physical harm. The person who develops PTSD may have been the one who was harmed, the harm may have happened to a loved one, or the person may have witnessed a harmful event that happened to loved ones or strangers. Because having an abortion can be a traumatic event for a woman, many women have reported the same symptoms as those experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder. We refer to this as post-abortion stress, or post abortion trauma.21

In fact, induced abortion early in pregnancy carries very low risk of complications. Less than 1% percent of women experience a major complication and there is no evidence of childbearing problems among women who have had aspiration abortions (the most common procedure) within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.22 In addition, “the risk of death associated with childbirth is about 11 times as high as that associated with abortion.”23 

TLC also uses the Navigator, an abstinence-only-until-marriage curriculum produced by the Illinois-based organization Project Reality. SIECUS reviewed Navigator and found that it relies on messages of fear and shame, inaccurate and misleading information, and biased views of marriage, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. Navigator fails to provide important information on sexual health, and the format and underlying biases of the curriculum dictate specific values and discourage critical thinking. For example, the authors explain, “Navigator does not promote the use of contraceptives for teens. No contraceptive device is guaranteed to prevent pregnancy. Besides, students who do not exercise self-control to remain abstinent are not likely to exercise self-control in the use of a contraceptive device.”24 

Two sub-grantees are affiliates of the national organization, Campaign for Our Children. These are located in DeKalb and Noble counties. The affiliates conduct media campaigns in the state of Indiana. The newest initiative from CFOC is, “Marriage Works USA.”25  The effort is, “aimed at promoting one of the world’s most cherished institutions: marriage.” CFOC explains, “The campaign’s core message is a practical, added-value approach that can be summed up in just two words: Marriage Works.” Using messages such as “Married people live longer” and “Married people are happier,” the website promotes marriage as a solution to teen pregnancy problems.26

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Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) and Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) Grantees

There are three CBAE grantees in Indiana: A Positive Approach to Teen Health, Inc. (PATH, Inc.) (receives two grants), Abstinence for Singles, and St. Vincent Health Hospital and Health Care Center, Inc. (receives two grants). There are no AFLA grantees in Indiana.

PATH, Inc. has two websites: an informational website about its abstinence-only-until-marriage program for teachers and parents (www.pathblazerinfo.org) and a teen site (www.pathblazer.org). The teen site contains games, videos, and a link to “The Mall” where young people can purchase abstinence-related items such as “Pledge Bars.”27 Pledge Bars are virginity-pledge themed candy bars with candy wrappers that read “Mrs. Rightbar.”

Pathblazer.org also contains a video entitled “Abstinence is Sexy” that states:

HIV Kills

But abstinence is sexy!

Gonorrhea stings

But abstinence is sexy!

Crabs really itch

But abstinence is sexy!

Teens get pregnant

But abstinence is sexy!

Trichs (Trichomoniasis) is not a treat

But abstinence is sexy!

HPV makes warts

But abstinence is sexy!

Porn is fake

But abstinence is sexy!

Gossip goes around

But abstinence is sexy!

Jealousy hurts

Abstinence is sexy!

Rejection stings

But abstinence is sexy!

Abstinence is sexy!

Just say no to bugs. And drugs.

Abstinence is sexy…sexy…sexy!28

While this video may be attempting to frame abstinence as a positive option, it nonetheless uses message of fear and shame to suggest that sexually active young people will inevitably face negative consequences ranging from crabs and gonorrhea to gossip and jealousy.

Another section of the teen website includes a series of interactive story-type games called “Choose Your Path” in which visitors face certain scenarios and guide the story based on their decisions. In “The Dance,” PATH implies that fast dancing with a person of the opposite sex leads to kissing and then oral sex or sexual intercourse, causing you to earn a grade of D- or F.29 PATH then encourages you to “recognize you made a mistake, you can prepare yourself to deal with the consequences, and you can make a healthier choice tomorrow by pledging to ‘Secondary Virginity’ and getting a new start!”30

Research has found that under certain conditions, such pledges, often called virginity pledges, may help some adolescents delay sexual intercourse. When they work, pledges help this select group of adolescents delay the onset of sexual intercourse for an average of 18 months—far short of marriage. More importantly, the studies also found that those young people who took a pledge were one-third less likely to use contraception when they did become sexually active than their peers who had not pledged. These teens are therefore more vulnerable to the risks of unprotected sexual activity such as unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV/AIDS. Further research has confirmed that although some students who take pledges delay intercourse, ultimately they are equally as likely to contract an STD as their non-pledging peers. The study also found that STD rates were higher in communities where a significant proportion (over 20 percent) of the young people had taken virginity pledges.31

Abstinence for Singles presents abstinence-only-until-marriage lectures, interactive workshops, and training sessions in schools and churches/youth groups for individuals up to the age of 29.32

St. Vincent Hospital and Health Care Center, Inc. administers the abstinence-only-until-marriage “PEERS Project.”33 This program is a “peer-facilitated, healthy relationships, abstinence and marriage education intervention” that uses teenage mentors to present the Peers Educating Peers about Positive Values (PEP) curriculum in middle schools and high schools.34

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Federal and State Funding for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programs in FY 2007

Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Grantee Length of Grant Amount of Grant Type of Grant (includes Title V, CBAE, AFLA, and other funds)

Indiana Department of Health

www.in.gov/isdh

$754,073 federal
$565,880 state

Title V

Bluffton Harrison M.S.D.
www.bhmsd.k12.in.us

$6,122

Title V sub-grantee

Campaign for Our Children, DeKalb County, Inc.

$18,775

Title V sub-grantee

Campaign for Our Children, Noble County, Inc.

$24,500

Title V sub-grantee

Clarian Health Partners
www.clarian.org

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Clay Community Schools
www.clay.k12.in.us/corp/index.cfm

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Creating Positive Relationships
www.cprl.org

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Crisis Pregnancy Center of the Wabash Valley, Inc.

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Family Services Society, Inc.
www.famservices.com

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Hoosier Uplands Economic Development Corporation –Lawrence Community School
DUAL GRANTEE

$25,000

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Title V sub-grantee

King’s Daughters’ Hospital and Health Services

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Northern Indiana Community Foundation, Inc.

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Madison County Health Department
www.madisoncountyhealthdepartment.org

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

New Hope Services, Inc.

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Our Place Drug & Alcohol Education Services

$12,500

Title V sub-grantee

A Positive Approach to Teen Health, Inc. (PATH)

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

TRIPLE GRANTEE
2004–2007

$492,266

CBAE

TRIPLE GRANTEE
2007–2011
www.pathblazer.org

$600,000

CBAE

Perry County Memorial Hospital

$22,924

Title V sub-grantee

Saint Anthony Medical Center
www.saintanthonymedical center.com

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Saint Anthony Memorial Health Centers, Inc.

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Saint Francis Hospital & Health Centers

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Saint Margaret Mercy HealthCare Center
www.smmhc.com

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Taylor Community Schools
www.taylor.k12.in.us

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

True Life Choices, Inc.
www.truelifechoices.org

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Vincennes Community School Corporation
www.vcsc.k12.in.us

$24,999

Title V sub-grantee

Women’s Care Center
www.womenscarecenter.org

$25,000

Title V sub-grantee

Abstinence for Singles
2006–2011
www.abstinenceforsingles.com

$599,954

CBAE

 

   

St. Vincent Hospital and Health Care Center, Inc.
2004–2007
DUAL GRANTEE
2007–2011
www.stvincent.org

$768,646

$597,500

CBAE

CBAE

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Adolescent Health Contact35
Stephanie Woodcox, MPH, CHES
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Indiana State Department of Health
Maternal and Children’s Special Health Care Division
Community and Family Health Services Commission
2 N. Meridian St., Section 8-C
Indianapolis, In 46204
Phone: (317) 233-1374

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Indiana Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education

ACLU of Indiana
1031 East Washington St.
Indianapolis, IN 46202
Phone: (317) 635-4059, ext. 230
www.aclu-in.org

Indiana National Organization for Women
P.O. Box 2264
Indianapolis, IN 46206
indiananow.comcast.net

Indiana Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice
P.O. Box 723
Lafayette IN 47902
Phone: (877) 441-5797
www.ircrc.org

Indiana Youth Group
P.O. Box 20716
Indianapolis, IN 46220
Phone: (317) 541-8726
www.indianayouthgroup.org

The League of Women Voters of Indiana
3921 North Meridian St., Suite 225
Indianapolis, IN 46208
Phone: (317) 241-VOTE
www.lwvin.org

National Association of Social Workers—Indiana Chapter
1100 West 42nd St., Suite 226
Indianapolis, IN 46208
Phone: (317) 923-9878
www.naswin.org

Planned Parenthood of Indiana
200 South Meridian St.
P.O. Box 397
Indianapolis, IN 46206
Phone: (317) 637-4343
www.ppin.org

Center for Sexual Health Promotion
1025 East 7th Street, HPER 116
Bloomington, IN 47405
Phone: (812) 855-0861
www.sexualhealth.indiana.edu

Indiana Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education

American Family Association of Indiana
P.O. Box 26208
Indianapolis, IN 46226
Phone: (317) 541-9287
www.afain.net  

Indiana Family Institute
155 East Market St., Suite 307
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: (317) 423-9178
www.hoosierfamily.org  

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Newspapers in Indiana36

Indianapolis Star
Newsroom
307 N. Pennsylvania St.
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: (317)444-4000
www.indystar.com

The News-Sentinel
Newsroom
600 W. Main St.
Fort Wayne, IN 46802
Phone: (260) 461-8444
www.news-sentinel.com

South Bend Tribune
Newsroom
225 W. Colfax Ave.
South Bend, IN 46626
Phone: (574) 235-1765
www.southbendtribune.com

The Star Press
Newsroom
345 S. High St.
Muncie, IN 47305
Phone: (765) 213-5830
www.thestarpress.com

The Journal Gazette
Newsroom
600 W. Main St.
Fort Wayne, IN 46802
Phone: (260) 461-8831
www.journalgazette.net

The Times
Newsroom
601 45th Ave.
Munster, IN 46321
Phone: (219) 933-3200
www.timesonline.com

Tribune Star
Newsroom
222 S. 7th St.
Terre Haute, IN 47807
Phone: (812) 231-4241
www.tribstar.com

 

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References

  1. This refers to the fiscal year for the federal government which begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2007 begins on October 1, 2006 and ends on September 30, 2007. 
  2. “Teacher Suspended Over Pro-Gay Article,” Planet Out, 20 March 2007, accessed 21 March 2007, <www.planetout.com/news/article.html?2007/03/20/3>.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Anne Gregory, “Newseum Written Statement On Sorrell Award,” jgwebbblogs.com, 5 November 2007, accessed 7 March 2008, < http://jgwebblogs.typepad.com/the_scoop/2007/11/newseum-written.html>.
  6. Erica Hudock, “Indiana High School Students Stop Publishing Paper in Protest of Prior Review Policy,” Student Press Law Center, 14 March 2007, accessed 7 March 2008, http://www.splc.org/newsflash.asp?id=1474.
  7. Rick Holtz, “Board Okays More Sex Education,” The Paper of Montgomery County (IN), 10 May 2007, accessed 16 May 2007, <www.thepaper24-7.com/main.asp?SectionID=23&SubSectionID=22&ArticleID=9827&TM=66095.53>.
  8. Doug Hunt, “Board Hopeful Of Less Teen Pregnancies With New Sex Education Course,” Journal Review (IN), 13 May 2007, accessed 16 May 2007, <www.journalreview.com/articles/2007/05/13/news/04sex.txt>.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Unless otherwise cited, all statistical information comes from Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57.SS-4 (6 June 2008), accessed 4 June 2008, http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm>.
  11. “Sex Can Wait, You’re Worth It,” Indiana Respect, accessed 20 March 2008, http://www.indianarespect.com/.
  12. Ibid.  
  13. “Welcome to the Women’s Care Center,” Women’s Care Center, Inc., accessed 19 March 2008, < http://www.womenscarecenter.org/>.
  14. “FAQs,” Women’s Care Center, accessed 12 June 2008, <http://www.womenscarecenter.org/faq_abortion.html>.
  15. Susan Cohen, “Abortion and Mental Health: Myths and Realities,” Guttmacher Policy Review vol. 9, no. 3 (Summer 2006), accessed 30 January 2007, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/gpr/09/3/gpr090308.html>.
  16. “Organization,” Creating Positive Relationships, Inc., accessed 23 March 2008, <http://www.cpr1.org/about_cpr.html>.
  17. Ibid. 
  18. “TLC Founding,” True Life Choices, Inc., accessed 23 March 2008, <http://www.tlc4abstinence.org/about.htm>.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.
  21. “Post Abortion Recovery,” TLC Women’s Center, accessed 14 May 2008, <http://www.tlcwomenscenter.org/heal.htm>.
  22. Facts In Brief: Induced Abortion, (New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute), accessed 15 May 2008, <http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html>.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Scott Phelps and Libby Gray, Navigator : Finding Your Way to a Healthy and Successful Future (Golf, IL: Project Reality, 2003). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Navigator at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
  25. “Marriage Works,” Campaign For Our Children, accessed 5 April 2008, < http://www.marriageworksusa.com/>.
  26. Ibid.
  27. “The Mall: Pledge Bars,” PATH, Inc., (2007), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.pathblazer.org/_the_mall.shtml>.
  28. “Abstinence is Sexy Video,” PATH, Inc., (2007), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.pathblazer.org/_movies.shtml>.
  29. “Choose Your Path: The Dance,” PATH, Inc., (2007), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.pathblazer.org/_choose_your_path.shtml>.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Peter Bearman and Hannah Brückner “Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and the Transition to First Intercourse.” American Journal of Sociology 106.4 (2001): 859-912.; Peter Bearman and Hannah Brückner, “After the promise: The STD consequences of adolescent virginity pledges,” Journal of Adolescent Health 36.4 (2005): 271-278.
  32. “Organization,” Abstinence for Singles, (2006), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.abstinenceforsingles.com/organization.asp>.
  33. “About the PEERS Project,” PEERS Project, (2008), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.peersproject.org/about_peers.cfm>.
  34. “About the PEERS Project,” PEERS Project, (2008), accessed 13 March 2008, <http://www.peersproject.org/about_peers.cfm>.
  35. SIECUS has identified this person as a state-based contact for information on adolescent health and if applicable, abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. 
  36. This section is a list of major newspapers in your state with contact information for their newsrooms. This list is by no means inclusive and does not contain the local level newspapers which are integral to getting your message out to your community. SIECUS strongly urges you to follow stories about the issues that concern you on the national, state, and local level by using an internet news alert service such as Google alerts, becoming an avid reader of your local papers, and establishing relationships with reporters who cover your issues. For more information on how to achieve your media goals visit the SIECUS Community Action Kit.

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