Washington State Profile Fiscal Year 2010
Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References
In Fiscal Year 2010, the state of Washington received:
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Washington received:
School districts in Washington are not required to implement comprehensive sexuality education; rather, the decision to implement sex education or human sexuality instruction in schools is made by the local school board. When developing “instruction in sexual health education,” Washington law states that school districts must involve parents and other community members “in the planning, development, evaluation, and revision.” The law also requires every Washington public school that offers sexual health education to assure that instruction is medically and scientifically accurate, age-appropriate, “appropriate for students regardless of race, gender, disability status, or sexual orientation,” and includes information about abstinence and other methods of preventing unintended pregnancy. It also states that “[a]bstinence may not be taught to the exclusion of other materials and instruction on contraceptives and disease prevention.”
Schools are required to teach sexually transmitted disease (STD)- and HIV/AIDS-prevention education and to “stress that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain means for the prevention of the spread or contraction of the AIDS virus through sexual contact.” HIV/AIDS-prevention instruction must be given at least once each school year beginning in grade five and must “teach that condoms and other artificial means of birth control are not a certain means of preventing the spread of the AIDS virus and reliance on condoms puts a person at risk for exposure to the disease.” Information must be current and medically accurate. In order to verify medical accuracy, the Washington Department of Health Office on HIV/AIDS must review and approve all HIV/AIDS curricula and supporting materials.
The Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Department of Health developed voluntary guidelines titled the Guidelines for Sexual Health and Disease Prevention. These guidelines promote broad, comprehensive, positive sexuality education programs that provide information about both abstinence and contraception, and are consistent with characteristics of programs that have been rigorously evaluated using quantitative research and shown be effective in reducing risk-taking behaviors. Washington also provides a voluntary curriculum, KNOW HIV/STD Prevention Curriculum,for use in grades five through 12, as well as a thorough list of other curricula that have been reviewed and approved by the Department of Health.
Parents or guardians may remove their children from HIV/AIDS-prevention education if they have attended one information session about the HIV/AIDS curriculum and presentation. If a school district chooses to provide sexuality education, parents may also remove their children from the class with written notification. This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.
See Revised Code of Washington §§ 28A.230.020, 28A.230.070, and 28A.300.475; Washington Administrative Code § 392-410-140; Guidelines for Sexual Health Information and Disease Prevention; KNOW HIV/STD Prevention Curriculum; and HIV/AIDS Curriculum and Supplementary Materials Reviewed for Medical Accuracy by the Washington State Department of Health Office on HIV/AIDS.
Bill to Require Parental Consent for Sex Education Classes
House Bill 1604, introduced in January 2011, would require a parent or guardian to provide written consent in order for his/her child to participate in any sexual health education course. This is commonly referred to as an “opt-in” policy. Washington currently has an “opt-out” law, under which parents have the option to excuse their child from sexual health education. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Education, which held a public hearing on the bill in March. No further action was taken on the bill during the regular legislative session. The bill was reintroduced during the 2011 first special legislative session. At the time of publication, no further action had been taken.
Bill Requiring Lessons on Sexual Offenses
House Bill 1284, introduced in January 2011, would require every public school that offers sex education to include a lesson that discusses the law regarding sexual offenses against minors and the legal consequences of conviction under the law. This portion of the sexual health education curriculum would be developed by the superintendent of public instruction in consultation with the Washington State Patrol and updated annually. The bill passed the House Committee on Education on February 21st and was referred to the Rules Committee for a second reading. No further action was taken during the regular session and the bill was reintroduced during the 2011 first special legislative session. At the time of publication, no further action had been taken.
Bill Regarding Parental Consent
House Bill 1602, introduced in January 2011, is intended to protect “parental rights” by responding to the “gradual encroachment by the state into the fundamental rights of parents….” The bill mainly addresses parental consent regarding medical treatment received by minors, but would also make written parental consent a requirement for any student participating in a class or program concerning sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual orientation, suicide, or euthanasia. The bill was referred to the Judiciary Committee and no further action was taken on the measure during the regular session. The bill was reintroduced during the 2011 first special legislative session. At the time of publication, no further action had been taken.
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Washington. The data collected represents the most current information available.
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data
Washington did not participate in the 2009 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance Survey.
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
HIV and AIDS
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) administers the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest, $4,000,000 (2010–2014)
Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest (PPGNW) provides “high-quality, affordable reproductive health care” to communities in the Pacific Northwest. The organization is an affiliate of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, a leading national provider of and advocate for sexual and reproductive health care. Its mission is “to support the lifelong sexual health of women and men, and to foster a community where every child is a wanted child.” PPGNW accomplishes its mission through services, advocacy, and “[m]edically accurate, age appropriate, comprehensive sex education that furthers understanding of human sexuality and promotes healthy behavior.” It operates health centers in Alaska, Idaho, and western Washington, serving thousands of women, men, and teenagers every year.
PPGNW is the lead agency among six Planned Parenthood affiliates that collaborate in the implementation of the Tier 1 program as member organizations of the Northwest Coalition for Adolescent Health. Along with Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest, coalition members include, Planned Parenthood of Greater Washington and North Idaho, Planned Parenthood of Columbia Willamette, Planned Parenthood of Montana, Planned Parenthood of Southwest Oregon, and Mt. Baker Planned Parenthood.
The Tier 1 program targets high-risk African American, Native American, Russian, and Ukrainian youth in grades 7–12 living in both rural and urban communities with substantially high teen birth and pregnancy rates and health disparities. The coalition will implement Teen Outreach Program (TOP ) at 73 schools and community agencies in 27 counties across five states: Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Approximately 2,000 youth will be served annually through the program.
Teen Outreach Program (TOP)is an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.” The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health. It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be administered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. The program is proven effective in preventing teen pregnancy and increasing academic success among participants. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.
The Northwest Coalition for Adolescent Health will primarily administer TOP during classroom instruction while in some communities the program will be administered as after-school programming. Participants will meet once a week for a minimum of 25 meetings over the nine-month period of the program. The service-learning component will take place on weekday evenings and on weekends.
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program also supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administer the grant program in partnership with OAH.
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
The Washington Department of Health will collaborate with the state Department of Social and Health Services and the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to administer the PREP program. The program will serve youth ages 11–19 in 17 targeted counties. The Department of Health will contract with The Center for Health Training (CHT) to train local communities in administering the evidence-based programs approved for use under the state’s grant. CHT is a non-profit agency that provides training, technical assistance, and research and evaluation services for sexual and reproductive health programs and related health initiatives. The organization operates three offices in the Pacific Northwest, West, and Southwest regions of the United States.
The state PREP program will provide local grants to school districts, community-based organizations, and local health departments. The Department of Health has approved the following evidence-based curricula for use under the PREP program: ¡Cuídate!; Making Proud Choices!; Reducing the Risk; SiHLE; and TOP. (Please see the TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs section above for more information on TOP.)
¡Cuídate! is an evidence-based HIV-prevention curriculum adapted from the evidence-based curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, and tailored for use with Latino youth ages 13–18. The curriculum provides information about HIV and its transmission, addresses values and beliefs related to HIV and safe sex, and includes activities aimed to increase skills and self-efficacy for condom use, negotiating abstinence, and safer sex. The intervention consists of six, one-hour lessons and is designed for use with small, mixed-gender groups. It draws upon cultural beliefs, such as the importance of family and the responsibility of a man to care for his family, in order to provide messages that resonate with participants. The curriculum consists of interactive games, small group discussions, videos, learning exercises, and skill-building activities. An evaluation of the curriculum published in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found that it reduced the frequency of sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and incidence of unprotected sex, while increasing condom use, among participants.
Making Proud Choices! is an evidence-based STD-, HIV-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum for young adolescents ages 11–13 that is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white populations. The curriculum aims to help youth understand the poor reasoning and decision making that can lead to STD/HIV infection and/or unintended pregnancy, as well as to increase their confidence, negotiation skills, and self-efficacy in using condoms. The program consists of eight, one-hour sessions and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings. Making Proud Choices! includes interactive and skill-building activities that are designed to “increase comfort with practicing condom use, address concerns about negative effects of practicing safer sex, and build skills in condom use and negotiation.” Findings from an evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association show that program participants reported more consistent condom use and less unprotected sex as well as a higher frequency of condom use than those in the control group.
Reducing the Risk: Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy, STD and HIV is an evidence-based, sexuality education curriculum designed for classroom use with students in the ninth and tenth grades. It is appropriate for use with multi-ethnic populations. Reducing the Risk aims to reduce high-risk behaviors among participants and emphasizes strategies for abstaining from sex or practicing safer sex. The 16-lesson curriculum addresses both abstinence and contraception use and includes experiential activities that teach students to develop refusal, negotiation, and communication skills. An evaluation of the program published in Family Planning Perspectives found that it increased parent-child communication, especially among Latino youth, delayed the initiation of sexual intercourse, and reduced incidence of unprotected sex among lower-risk youth who participated in the program.
SiHLE(Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering) is an evidence-based HIV/STD-prevention education program designed for African-American females ages 14–18 who are sexually active and at high risk for HIV. It is a peer-led, social skills training intervention based on social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power. The program consists of four, four-hour sessions that are administered on consecutive Saturdays in a community-based setting. Sessions are led by an African-American female adult and two peer-facilitators, ages 18–21. The sessions are designed to reinforce ethnic and gender pride and address HIV-prevention strategies, the transmission of STDs, communication and negotiation skills, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, healthy relationships, and personal empowerment. The program incorporates group discussion, lectures, games, and role-playing. Participants also complete homework assignments that provide opportunity for reflection and skills practice. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that, at six-month follow-up, program participants were significantly less likely to report being pregnant and significantly more likely to report having used condoms consistently in the previous six months than participants in the control group. In addition, at a twelve-month follow-up, participants were significantly more likely to report consistent condom use in the previous 30 days and having used a condom during last sexual intercourse than participants in the control group.
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. ACF administers the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF administers the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
SIECUS has identified some examples of model programs, policies, and best practices being implemented in Washington public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.
Washington Healthy Youth Act
In 2007, the Washington legislature passed into law the Healthy Youth Act, which was signed by Governor Christine Gregoire on May 26, 2007. The law requires school districts that choose to teach sexuality education to provide medically and scientifically accurate information that teaches about both abstinence and contraception as well as a variety of other topics. Among those school districts that do provide sexuality education in compliance with state law (approximately half of the state’s 304 school districts), 47 report using the FLASH curriculum.
FLASH(Family Life and Sexual Health) is a set of comprehensive sexuality education curricula developed by the Seattle and King County, Washington public health department. The curricula are designed for students in grades five through 12 and divided by grade level into three separate curriculum: 4/5/6 FLASH, 7/8 FLASH, and High School FLASH. There is also a version for special education students ages 11–21 in self-contained classes. Each curriculum contains approximately 20 lessons. FLASH “rests on a foundation of positive and healthy sexuality across the lifespan;” furthermore, it “focuses on the needs of public schools and diverse communities” and includes a “strong family involvement component.” The curricula focus on abstinence while also providing information on the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Lessons cover such topics as human growth and development, sexual health, risk behavior and social factors associated with HIV/AIDS, interpersonal relationships, body image, gender roles, and sexual orientation, as well other topics. FLASH is considered a promising model program; an examination of the most recent version of the curriculum concluded that its “concurrence with the characteristics of sex education programs that have been rigorously evaluated and found to be effective” was strong.
Through the Healthy Youth Alliance, a statewide sex education coalition, organizations and supporting members assist with implementation efforts across the state. For example, Planned Parenthood affiliates in Washington provide education and teacher training in schools, the Center for Health Training focuses on providing sexual health education trainings to trainers and teachers, the Seattle & King County public health department has sexual health educators on staff who make presentations in every school district in King County, and NARAL Pro-Choice Washington Foundation works to organize community support for comprehensive sex education to assist with implementation efforts. Areas of the state that have succeeded in implementing comprehensive and medically accurate programs including, Skagit and Whatcom counties, and communities including Ellensburg, Kennewick/Tri Cities, Spokane, and Yakima, among others.
Comprehensive Sex Education Programs in Public Schools
School Districts Adopt Comprehensive Sexuality Education Policies and Curriculum
The Puyallup school district has worked to implement more comprehensive sex education programming in schools over the past few years. In the spring of 2009, the school board officially eliminated funding for an abstinence-only-until-marriage guest lecturer that had been allocated in previous school years. In March 2010, the school board voted to revise the district’s sexual health education policy and adopted the Healthy Youth Act as its official policy for human sexuality instruction. The following month the school board adopted the FLASH curriculum, which had been recommended by the district’s review committee, for use in grades four through 12. (See the previous section, “Washington Healthy Youth Act,” for more information on the FLASH curriculum.)
The Yakima school district also officially adopted the Healthy Youth Act as the district’s sex education policy and implemented FLASH in district schools.
Washington Youth Sexual Health Plan
In November 2010, the Washington State Department of Health, in partnership with local health departments, community organizations, and additional stakeholders, developed a strategic plan to coordinate the health services, education, community engagement, and school programs being provided to support adolescent sexual health in the state. The Washington Youth Sexual Health Plan serves as a framework for supporting positive youth development. It offers guidance for program development, policy advocacy, fundraising, and educating stakeholders to promote youth sexual health. The plan outlines overarching goals for improving adolescent sexual health and wellness in the state, including: equip youth to “use accurate information and well-developed skills to make thoughtful choices about relationships and sexual health;” eliminate sexual health inequities; and reduce rates of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and “non-consensual sexual behaviors.”
In order to achieve these goals, the plan outlines eight objectives for establishing concrete plans and policies to support youth sexual health. These objectives include:
Overall, the Washington Youth Sexual Health Plan emphasizes the responsibility of adults to ensure that accurate information, skill-building opportunities, and quality health services are made available to all youth. In addition, it recognizes that young people must play a central role in defining their own needs for positive development and identifying programs and policies to support their health. Lastly, the plan relies on a holistic approach to sexual health that not only addresses the physical aspect – such as the prevention of unintended pregnancy, STDs, and unwanted sexual behavior – but that also supports its emotional, mental, and social elements. With this approach, the plan also works to support policies that “help reduce poverty, discrimination, gender inequities, gender role expectations, and cultural assumptions of heterosexuality.”
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Washington public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information. Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
Adolescent Health Contact
Judy Schoder, RN, MN
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Office of Maternal and Child Health
Washington State Department of Health
P.O. Box 47880
Olympia, WA 98504
Phone: (360) 236-3520
PREP State-Grant Coordinator
PREP Project Manager
Office of Maternal and Child Health
Washington State Department of Health
P.O. Box 47880
Olympia, WA 98504
Phone: (360) 236-3530
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Political Blogs in Washington
This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
Wash. Admin. Code § 392-410-140(4), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=392-410-140 4- http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.070>.
Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.300.475(1), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.020>.
Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.230.070(7), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.070>.
Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.230.070(3), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.070>.
Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.230.070(4), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.070>.
Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.300.475(6), <http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.300.475>
Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>. Note: Seattle, Washington participated in the 2009 YRBS; however, the city did not participate in the full survey.
“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
Ibid., Table 3.2.
U.S.Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity., Table 3.3.
This section provides data from 2008, the most recent year for which the CDC has reported HIV/AIDS data for young people ages 13–19. For this reason, all the data presented is from 2008 for the purposes of direct comparison.
HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 20.
Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov/>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
Ibid; see also Table 33: “Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, 121.
“Who We Are,” Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest, accessed 15 June 2011, <http://www.plannedparenthood.org/ppgnw/who-we-are-23145.htm>.
Saras Chung and Annie Philipps, Promoting Mental Health and Well-being in Adolescents: Recommendations for Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program, (Eureka, MO: Wyman Teen Outreach Program, 2010), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.wymantop.org/pdfs/TOP_Positive_Well-Being.pdf>, 3.
“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Teen Outreach Program,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/teen_outreach_program.html>.
Information provided by Willa Marth, Director of Education and Organizational Effectiveness for Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest, 21 June 2011.
Information provided by Kathy Chapman, Access and Care Coordination Manager for the Washington State Department of Health, 19 July 2011.
“Who We Are,” The Center for Health Training, accessed 15 August 2011, <http://www.centerforhealthtraining.org/aboutus/index.html>; see also “Projects,” The Center for Health Training, accessed 15 August 2011, <http://www.centerforhealthtraining.org/projects/index.html>.
Information provided by Kathy Chapman.
“Cuidate!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 5 May 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=577&PageTypeID=2>; see also Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections, Second Edition(Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 76–79.
“Making Proud Choices!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 15 April 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=128>.
Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 22.
“Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, Empowering (SiHLE),” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=567&PageTypeID=2>.
Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 98–101; see also “Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE),” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/sihle.html>.
This is by no means a complete list of all comprehensive programming and policies related to sexuality education, but rather some examples of best practices and model programs that SIECUS identified.
Information provided by Caitlin Safford, program organizer for NARAL Pro-Choice Foundation of Washington, 3 June 2010.
“Questions About the Family Life and Sexual Health (F.L.A.S.H.) Curriculum,” Public Health – Seattle and King County, accessed 3 May 2010,<http://www.kingcounty.gov/healthservices/health/personal/famplan/educators/FLASH/questions.aspx>.
Information provided by Caitlin Safford, 3 June 2010.
WashingtonYouth Sexual Health Plan (Tumwater, WA: Washington State Department of Health, 2010), <http://www.doh.wa.gov/cfh/micah/waprepplan/docs/wyshplan11-9-10.pdf>, 2.
The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health.