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Oklahoma State Profile Fiscal Year 2010

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Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References

 
Oklahoma
 
In Fiscal Year 2010[1], the state of Oklahoma received:
  • Personal Responsibility Education Program funds totaling $615,320
 
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Oklahoma received:
  • Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative funds totaling $431,543
  • Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies funds totaling $929,750
 
 
Sexuality Education Law and Policy
Oklahomadoes not require schools to teach sexuality education. However, schools are required to provide HIV/AIDS-prevention education. This education must be limited to the “discussion of the disease AIDS and its spread and prevention.”[2] The class must be taught once during either grade five or six, once during grades seven through nine, and once during grades ten through 12.[3] All curricula and materials must be checked for medical accuracy by the Oklahoma Department of Health and must only include “factual medical information for AIDS prevention.”[4]
 
HIV/AIDS education must specifically teach that:
  • engaging in homosexual activity, promiscuous sexual activity, intravenous drug use or contact with contaminated blood products is now known to be primarily responsible for contact with the AIDS virus;
  • avoiding the activities specified above is the only method of preventing the spread of the virus;
  • artificial means of birth control are not a certain means of preventing the spread of the AIDS virus and reliance on such methods puts a person at risk for exposure to the disease; and
  • sexual intercourse, with or without condoms, with any person testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, or any other person infected with HIV, places that individual in a high risk category for developing AIDS.[5]
 
If a school district does choose to teach sexuality education, all curricula and materials must be approved for medical accuracy by the state and by the district superintendent.[6] All materials must also be available to parents for review.[7] In addition, all sexuality education classes must have as one of their primary purposes “the teaching of or informing students about the practice of abstinence.”[8]
 
A school district must provide written notification of all sexuality and HIV/AIDS-prevention classes. Parents or guardians can submit written notification if they do not want their children to participate in such classes.[9] This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.

See Oklahoma Statutes 70-11-103.3, 70-11-105.1
 
 
 
Recent Legislation
 
Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Act of 2011Introduced
House Bill 1195 and Senate Bill 535, both introduced in January 2011, would have mandated each school district to provide age-appropriate sex education in grades one through 12. Such instruction would have been required to teach “that abstinence from sexual intercourse outside of lawful marriage is the expected social standard for unmarried school-age persons” as well provide information on the health benefits and side effects of all contraceptive and barrier methods. The legislation also would have required each school district to periodically offer professional development trainings for staff who teach sex education. The bills were assigned to the House and Senate Committees on Education, respectively, and both died in committee.
 
Bill Requiring Medically Accurate Sex Education Curricula
Senate Bill 37, introduced in February 2011, would have required all local school boards to ensure that sex education curricula and materials are medically accurate. The bill offered a definition for medical accuracy, which stated, in part, that “the deliberate withholding of information that is needed to protect life and health and that is therefore relevant to informed decision-making shall not be considered medically accurate.” The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Education, where it died.
 
 
 
Youth Sexual Health Data
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Oklahoma. The data collected represents the most current information available.
 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data[10]
  • In 2009, 51% of female high school students and 51% of male high school students in Oklahoma reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 3% of female high school students and 6% of male high school students in Oklahoma reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 15% of female high school students and 20% of male high school students in Oklahoma reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 40% of female high school students and 40% of male high school students in Oklahoma reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 50% of females and 64% of males in Oklahoma reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 22% of females and 23% of males in Oklahoma reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 20% of females and 20% of males in Oklahoma reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 82% of high school students in Oklahoma reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
  • Oklahoma’s teen birth rate currently ranks 5th in the United States, with a rate of 61.6 births per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 41.5 births per 1,000.[11] In 2008, there were a total of 5,954 live births reported to young women ages 15–19 in Oklahoma.[12]
 
  • In 2005, Oklahoma’s teen pregnancy rate ranked 14th in the United States, with a rate of 76 pregnancies per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 70 pregnancies per 1,000.[13]  There were a total of 9,370 pregnancies among young women ages 15–19 in Oklahoma.[14]
 
  • In 2005, Oklahoma’s teen abortion rate ranked 39th in the U.S., with a rate of 10 abortions per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 19 abortions per 1,000.[15]
 
HIV and AIDS
  • Oklahoma’s HIV infection rate ranks 24th in the United States, with a rate of 8.4 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 19.5 cases per 100,000.[16]
 
  • Oklahoma ranks 23rd in cases of HIV infection diagnosed in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 305 new cases of HIV infection diagnosed in Oklahoma.[17]
 
  • Oklahoma’s HIV infection rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 19th in the United States, with a rate of 6.3 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 9.1 cases per 100,000.[18]
 
  • Oklahoma ranks 31st in number of reported AIDS cases in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 172 new AIDS cases reported in Oklahoma.[19]
 
  • Oklahoma’s AIDS rate ranks 34th in the United States, with a rate of 4.7 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000.[20]
 
  • Oklahoma’s AIDS rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 40th in the United States with a rate of 0.3 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000.[21]
 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Oklahomaranks 18th in reported cases of Chlamydia among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 21.04 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 19.51 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 5,343 cases of Chlamydia reported among young people ages 15–19 in Oklahoma.[22]
 
  • Oklahomaranks 13th in reported cases of gonorrhea among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 5.95 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 4.52 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 1,510 cases of gonorrhea reported among young people ages 15–19 in Oklahoma.[23]
 
  • Oklahomaranks 23rd in reported cases of primary and secondary syphilis among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 0.02 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 0.04 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 4 cases of syphilis reported among young people ages 15–19in Oklahoma.[24]
 
 
 
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) implements the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
 
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
  • There is one TPPI Tier 1 grantee in Oklahoma, Youth Services of Tulsa, Inc., which received $431,543 for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
Youth Services of Tulsa, Inc., $431,543 (2010–2014)
Youth Services of Tulsa, Inc. is a non-profit community agency that provides “innovative services and activities designed to increase self discovery and instill positive core values and decision-making skills that will keep youth safe and allow them to lead healthy and productive lives.”[25] Its services and programs include an adolescent emergency shelter, counseling, and an LGBTQ support group. 
 
With its TPPI funding, Youth Services implements the “PregNot” program, which uses Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP). The program serves youth, ages 12–19, living or participating in six Tulsa Housing Authority public housing communities, three Juvenile Bureau District Court of Tulsa County detention centers (JBDC Detention Home, Lakeside Home, and Phoenix Rising), and five programs at Youth Services, (the Adolescent Emergency Shelter, Street Outreach, First Offender Diversion, home-based counseling, and Transitional Living programs).[26]
 
Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP) is an evidence-based program designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors among high-risk adolescents in juvenile detention centers. The intervention aims to increase condom use and reduce alcohol-related sexual behavior among participants by increasing their knowledge of STDs, including HIV, improving condom-use skills, and teaching them to set long-term goals for reducing their sexual risk behavior. Designed as a three-hour, one-time intervention, the program consists of a learning component followed by group discussion. A trained facilitator administers the program to a small group of same-sex participants. The program includes activities such as a videogame and condom-use demonstration. An evaluation of the program published in Pediatrics found that at a six-, nine-, and 12-month follow-up participants reported more consistent condom use than those in the control group.[27] SHARP Youth Services health education specialists hold two to three classes per week and track outcomes at three, six, nine, and twelve months.[28]  The specialists deliver the curriculum to small groups divided into age brackets of youth ages 12–14, 15–17, and 18–19.Youth Services plans for the program to reach approximately 2,000 youth annually.
 
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 2 Innovative Approaches grantees in Oklahoma.
 
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program also supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implement the grant program in partnership with OAH.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 2 Communitywide Initiatives grantees in Oklahoma.
 
 
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) implements the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
 
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
  • The Oklahoma State Department of Health received $615,320 in federal PREP funds for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
The Oklahoma State Department of Health implements the state’s PREP grant program and provides school-based programming to students in grades six through eight. Programming is targeted toward high-risk communities in Oklahoma and Tulsa counties, including those that experience high rates of teen birth and infant mortality. The state department of health partners with the Oklahoma City County Health Department and the Tulsa City County Health Department to deliver programming, which primarily serves African-American and Native American youth. Oklahoma PREP uses the following three curricula: Making a Difference!, Making Proud Choices!, and Reducing the Risk. The program incorporates a strong positive youth development approach and individual schools determine which three adulthood preparation topics to address.[29]
 
Making a Difference! is an evidence-based pregnancy-, STD-, and HIV-prevention education curriculum that emphasizes abstinence from sexual activity. Adapted from the evidence-based curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, Making a Difference! aims to increase participants’ knowledge about HIV, STD, and pregnancy prevention as well as their confidence to negotiate sexual pressure and intention to abstain from sex. It is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white adolescents ages 11–13 and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings.  The curriculumincludes interactive activities, small group discussions, and skill-building exercises, including role-plays, aimed to increase comfort and efficacy with practicing abstinence. An evaluation of the curriculum published in the Journal of American Medical Association found that at a three-month follow-up,  participants in the program were less likely to report having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior than peers in the control group. Evaluation results also showed that the program helped to delay sexual initiation among program participants who were sexually inexperienced.[30]
 
Making Proud Choices! is an evidence-based STD-, HIV-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white adolescents ages 11–13. The curriculum aims to help youth understand the poor reasoning and decision making that can lead to STD/HIV infection and/or unintended pregnancy, as well as to increase their confidence, negotiation skills, and self-efficacy in using condoms. The program consists of eight, one-hour sessions and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings. Making Proud Choices! includes interactive and skill-building activities that are designed to “increase comfort with practicing condom use, address concerns about negative effects of practicing safer sex, and build skills in condom use and negotiation.”[31]  An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that program participants reported more consistent condom use and less unprotected sex as well as a higher frequency of condom use than those in the control group.[32]
 
Reducing the Risk: Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy, STD and HIV is an evidence-based, pregnancy-, STD-, and HIV-prevention curriculum designed for classroom use with students in the ninth and tenth grades. It is appropriate for use with multi-ethnic populations.[33] Reducing the Risk aims to reduce high-risk behaviors among participants and emphasizes strategies for abstaining from sex or practicing safer sex. The 16-lesson curriculum addresses both abstinence and contraception use and includes experiential activities that teach students to develop refusal, negotiation, and communication skills. An evaluation of the program published in Family Planning Perspectives found that it increased parent-child communication, especially among Latino youth, delayed the initiation of sexual intercourse, and reduced incidence of unprotected sex among lower-risk youth who participated in the program.[34]
 
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. ACF implements the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
  • There is one PREIS grantee in Oklahoma, Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy, which received $929,750 for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy, $929,750 (2010–2014)
The Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy (OICA) is a community-based organization located in Oklahoma City that works to generate “positive and lasting change in meeting the needs of our state’s children” by creating awareness, taking action, and changing policy.[35] With its PREIS grant, OICA implements and evaluates the POWER Through Choices 2010 sexuality education curriculum, an adaptation of Power Through Choices specifically designed for youth in foster care. The program serves young people ages 14–18 in the foster care system in Oklahoma, California, Illinois, and Maryland. 
 
Power Through Choices is an HIV-, STD-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum designed for youth ages 14–18 residing in group homes, foster homes, or other residential care settings.[36] The curriculum focuses on reducing sexual risk behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and STD/HIV infection. It engages youth in interactive exercises “to build self-empowerment and increase their decision making skills.”[37] Additionally, the program provides instruction to help youth gain and practice skills for using contraception, communicating effectively, and accessing available resources and health services.[38] Power Through Choices consists of ten, 90-minute sessions that are designed to be implemented twice a week over a period of five to six weeks. Lessons include activities, time for reflection, and group discussion.[39] An evaluation of the program pilot published in Child Welfare showed the curriculum held promise in reducing risky sexual behaviors among program participants.[40]
 
 
 
Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF implements the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
  • Oklahomachose not to apply for Title V abstinence-only funds for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
 
Oklahoma TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only funding in FY 2010
Grantee
Award
Fiscal Years
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI)
TPPI Tier 1: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs
Youth Services of Tulsa, Inc.
$431,543
2010–2014
TOTAL
$431,543
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP)
PREP State-Grant Program
Oklahoma State Department of Health (federal grant)
$615,320
2010
TOTAL
$615,320
2010
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies
Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy
$929,750
2010–2014
TOTAL
$929,750
 
     
GRAND TOTAL
$1,976,613
2010
 
 
 
Comprehensive Approaches to Sexuality Education
SIECUS has identified some examples of model programs, policies, and best practices being implemented in Oklahoma public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.[41]
 
Comprehensive Sex Education Programs in Public Schools
Through the state’s PREP grant program, the Oklahoma State Department of Health implements evidence-based programming in Oklahoma City and Tulsa middle schools that provides more comprehensive sexuality education to students in grades six through eight. Health educators from the local city-county health departments provide in-class instruction using one of the following curricula: Making a Difference!, Making Proud Choices!, and Reducing the Risk. (Please see the PREP State-Grant Program section above for more information.)
 
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Oklahoma public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information. Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
 
 
 
Points of Contact
 
Adolescent Health Contact[42]
Teresa Ryan, BSN, MLS
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Oklahoma State Department of Health
1000 N.E. Tenth Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73117
Phone: (405) 271-4477
 
PREP State-Grant Coordinator
Suzanna Dooley, MS, ARNP
Title V Maternal and Child Health Director
Oklahoma State Department of Health
1000 N.E. Tenth Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73117
Phone: (405) 271-4480
 
 
 
Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
NARAL Pro-Choice Oklahoma
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 663-4278
www.prochoiceoklahoma.
 
 
Oklahoma Religious Coalition for
Reproductive Choice
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 481-6444
 
 
Oklahoma AIDS Care Fund
Oklahoma City, OK 
Phone: (405) 348-6600
 
 
Planned Parenthood of Arkansas
and Eastern Oklahoma
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 587-1101
 
Oklahomans for Equality
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 743-4297
 
Planned Parenthood of Central Oklahoma
Oklahoma City, OK
Phone: (405) 528-2157
 
 
 
Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
Oklahoma Family Policy Council
Bethany, OK
Phone: (405) 787-7744
 
Oklahomans for Life
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 749-5022
 
 
 
Media Outlets
 
Newspapers in Oklahoma[43]
Bartlesville Examiner-Enterprise
Bartlesville, OK
Phone: (918) 335-8200
 
The Daily Ardmoreite
Ardmore, OK
Phone: (580) 223-2200
 
Enid News and Eagle
Enid, OK
Phone: (800) 299-6397
 
The Lawton Constitution
Lawton, OK 
Phone: (580) 353-0620
 
Muskogee Daily Phoenix
Muskogee, OK
Phone: (918) 684-2828
 
News-Capital & Democrat
McAlester, OK
Phone: (918) 423-1700
 
The Norman Transcript
Norman, OK
Phone: (405) 321-1800
 
The Oklahoman
Oklahoma City, OK
Phone: (405) 475-3311
 
Ponca City News
Ponca City, OK
Phone: (580) 765-3311
Tulsa World
Tulsa, OK
Phone: (918) 581-8400
             
 
Political Blogs in Oklahoma
Alternative Tulsa
 
Blue Oklahoma
 
Okie Funk
Oklahoma Women’s Network
 
 
 

[1]This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th.  The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010
[3]Ibid.
[4]Okla. Stat. § 70-11-103.3(C). 
[5]Okla. Stat. §S 70-11-103.3(D)–(E). 
[6]Okla. Stat. § 70-11-103.3(B). 
[7]Okla. Stat. § 70-11-103.3(C). 
[9]Okla. Stat. § 70-11-105.1(B). 
[10]Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>. 
[11]“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>., Table 12.
[12]“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
[13]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, (Washington, DC: Guttmacher Institute, January 2010), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf>, Table 3.1.
[14]Ibid., Table 3.2.
[15]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, Table 3.3.
[16]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
[17]Ibid.
[18]Slide 9: “Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[19]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, Table 20.
[20]Ibid.
[21]Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[22]“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
[23]Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
[24]Ibid; see also Table 33: “Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, 121.
[25]Youth Services of Tulsa, Inc., “About Us,” accessed 14 July 2011, <http://www.yst.org/yst/About_Us.asp?SnID=18281247>.
[27]“Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention (SHARP)” Evidence-Based Program, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 23 August 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=613&PageTypeID=2>.
[28]Ibid.
[29]Information provided by Suzanna Dooley, adolescent health coordinator for the Oklahoma State Department of Health, Child and Adolescent Health Division, 9 February 2011.
[30]“Making a Difference!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=127&PageTypeID=2>.
[31]“Making Proud Choices!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 15 April 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=128>.
[32]Ibid.
[33]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 22.
[34]Ibid., 23–24.
[35]“Our Mission,” Oklahoma Institute for Child Advocacy, accessed 5 September 2011, <http://www.oica.org/about-us/our-mission>.
[36]“Power Through Choices,” Massachusetts Alliance on Teen Pregnancy, accessed 18 August, 2011, <http://www.massteenpregnancy.org/sites/default/files/PTC%20Overview.pdf>.
[37]“Power Through Choices – Sexuality,” NRCYS Online Catalog, accessed 5 May 2010, <http://www.nrcys.ou.edu/catalog/product.php?productid=116>.
[38]“Power Through Choices,” Massachusetts Alliance on Teen Pregnancy.
[39]Ibid.
[40]Preventing Teen Pregnancy Among Marginalized Youth: Developing a Policy, Program, and Research Agenda for the Future, (Baltimore, MD: Healthy Teen Network, 8 September 2008), accessed 5 May 2010, <http://www.healthyteennetwork.org/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC={2AE1D600-4FC6-4B4D-8822-F1D5F072ED7B}&DE={235FD1E7-208D-4363-9854-4E6775EB8A4C}>.
[41]This is by no means a complete list of all comprehensive programming and policies related to sexuality education, but rather some examples of best practices and model programs that SIECUS identified. 
[42]The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health.. 
[43]This section is a list of major newspapers in the state and is by no means exhaustive of local print outlets.
 
National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education