Louisiana State Profile Fiscal Year 2010
Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References
In Fiscal Year 2010, the state of Louisiana received:
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Louisiana received:
Louisiana does not require schools to offer sexuality or sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV education, but schools are permitted to offer it after sixth grade. State law mandates that sexuality education cannot be offered in kindergarten through sixth grade, except in Orleans Parish, which may offer sexuality education in the third grade and above. Schools must provide this education “regardless of the student’s grade level” if the student is parenting or pregnant. The education must be integrated into “an existing course study such as biology, science, physical hygiene, or physical education.” It cannot include “religious beliefs, practices in human sexuality, nor the subjective moral and ethical judgments of the instructor or other persons. Students shall not be tested, quizzed, or surveyed about their personal or family beliefs or practices in sex, morality, or religion.” According to the Louisiana Handbook for School Administrators, students must be taught “the principle modes by which communicable diseases, including, but not limited to, HIV infection, are spread and the best methods for the restriction and prevention of these diseases.” Schools are prohibited from distributing any “contraceptive or abortifacient drug, device, or other similar product.”
Classes may not include “any sexually explicit materials depicting male or female homosexual activity.” They also may not in “any way counsel or advocate abortion.” In addition, this education must emphasize that:
Louisiana also requires that all public high schools that offer home economics classes must also provide “parenthood education,” which must include the following topics about family living and community relationships: the consequences of the lack of adequate prenatal care, home management, and the responsibilities of parenthood. In addition, Louisiana now requires that adoption awareness be included in any health education or appropriate class. This includes instruction on “the benefits of adoption for families wishing to add a child, for potential adoptees, and for persons who are pregnant or who have a child for whom they are unable to care.”
Parents or guardians may remove their children from sexuality education and/or STD/HIV education classes. This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.
See Louisiana Revised Statutes Annotated §§ 17:263, 17:279, and 17:281, and Louisiana Handbook for School Administrators- Bulletin 741.
SIECUS is not aware of any recent legislation regarding sexuality education in Louisiana.
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Louisiana. The data collected represents the most current information available.
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
HIV and AIDS
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) administers the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
Central Louisiana Area Health Education Center Foundation, $406,849 (2010–2014)
The Central Louisiana Area Health Education Center (CLAHEC) is a community-based organization that provides education-based services to a 17-county region of Louisiana (Ascension, Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Grant, Iberville, LaSalle, Livingston, Pointe Coupee, Rapides, St. Helena, Vernon, West Baton Rouge, West Feliciana, and Winn). CLAHEC works to address shortages of health professionals in underserved and rural areas; provide community-based services that assist health professionals to further develop and maintain their skills; and encourage students, especially minorities or underrepresented groups, to pursue health professions. Its mission is to “[increase] the number of primary health care professionals and [improve] access to quality health care.”
With its TPPI grant, CLAHEC provides programming to cadets of the Louisiana National Guard Youth Challenge Program, which recruits and trains students who have dropped out of high school “to succeed as productive citizens.” The overall goals of the program are to increase participants’ knowledge of, comfort with, and intention to use contraceptives; to provide participants with information that will help them change behaviors contributing to high HIV and STD rates among adolescents; and to reduce unintended teen pregnancy. The program targets high-risk youth, ages 16–19, from urban, suburban, and rural communities throughout south and central Louisiana. CLAHEC delivers the program at the Louisiana National Guard Youth Challenge Program’s Camp Beauregard location in Pineville, Louisiana, and at its Gillis Long Center location in Carville, Louisiana. The program plans to reach 1,300 youth annually.
The program uses Be Proud! Be Responsible!, an evidence-based HIV-prevention curriculum designed for urban, African-American males ages 13–18. The curriculum seeks to provide young people with the knowledge, motivation, and skills necessary to reduce their risk of HIV, other STDs, and causing unintended pregnancy. It also aims to impact sexual behavior by equipping youth with negotiation, refusal, and condom use skills. The curriculum uses a “sense-of-community” approach that emphasizes how HIV/AIDS has affected inner-city communities and discusses the importance of protecting the community in order to instill accountability, sexual responsibility, and a sense of pride in participants. Although originally designed for use with small groups of six to 12 participants, the curriculum has been used with larger groups and is appropriate for both school-based and community-based settings. An evaluation of the program published in the American Journal of Community Psychology found that the intervention reduced the number of female sexual partners participants had as well as the number of non-monogamous female sexual partners (those who were simultaneously involved with other male partners). In addition, the study found that the intervention decreased the frequency of vaginal intercourse, reduced the incidence of heterosexual anal sex, and increased condom use among participants.
Institute of Women and Ethnic Studies, $599,680 (2010–2014)
The Institute of Women and Ethnic Studies (IWES) is a national non-profit founded in 1993 in response to health disparities among minority women. Headquartered in New Orleans, the organization is “dedicated to improving the physical, mental, and spiritual health and quality of life for women of color and their families, especially those who are socio-economically disadvantaged.” IWES maintains strong relationships at the community and grassroots level and works to bring the “voices, perspective, and experiences of the community” to its partnerships with academic institutions, public health agencies, and policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels. The organization promotes health awareness and activism and provides programs and services in the areas of sexual health and prevention, reproductive justice and sexual health advocacy, and mental health and community wellness.
With its TPPI Tier 1 funding, IWES implements the “MPC! – NOLA! (Making Proud Choices! – New Orleans, LA)” program. The program aims to “empower young adolescents to change their behavior in ways that will reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV and other STDs and their risk of pregnancy.” The objectives of the program include increasing responsible sexual behaviors and knowledge regarding pregnancy and STD prevention, and instilling belief in the importance of safe sexual practices among program participants. The program plans to reach approximately 900 youth annually.
“MPC! – NOLA!” targets African-American and Latino youth, ages 11–13, in Orleans and Jefferson parishes. IWES partners with public and charter schools and community-based organizations committed to youth empowerment to recruit participants and implement programming, including: the Children’s Defense Fund of Louisiana, YOUTHanasia Foundation, Gert Town Community Development Center, Women With A Vision, Ashé Cultural Arts Center/Efforts of Grace, Inc., CubaNOLA, and the Treme Charter School Association/McDonogh #42 Elementary Charter School.
Through “MPC! – NOLA!,” IWES uses Making Proud Choices! in public and charter schools during school hours and through after-school programs. Making Proud Choices! is an evidence-based STD-, HIV-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum for young adolescents ages 11–13 that is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white populations. The curriculum aims to help youth understand the poor reasoning and decision making that can lead to STD/HIV infection and/or unintended pregnancy, as well as to increase their confidence, negotiation skills, and self-efficacy in using condoms. The program consists of eight, one-hour sessions and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings. Making Proud Choices! includes interactive and skill-building activities that are designed to “increase comfort with practicing condom use, address concerns about negative effects of practicing safer sex, and build skills in condom use and negotiation.” Findings from an evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association show that program participants reported more consistent condom use and less unprotected sex as well as a higher frequency of condom use than those in the control group.
The “MPC! – NOLA!” implementation of Making Proud Choices! incorporates two additional sessions into the curriculum to address the specific needs of New Orleans youth. These sessions address mental health and wellness as key factors in decision-making and protective behavior. The adaptation has been approved by OAH.
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, $2,200,000 (2010–2014)
The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (DHH), Office of Public Health manages its TPPI tier 1 grant through its Family Planning Program. The program serves low-income residents who wish to space the births of their children and/or limit the size of their families. Its mission is to “reduce female and infant mortality, morbidity, and teen pregnancy by providing disease screening, health education, counseling, and contraceptive methods.”
The Louisiana DHH Office of Public Health Family Planning Program contracts with community-based organizations to administer Teen Outreach Program (TOP) in four urban parishes and three rural parishes with the highest incidences of teen births in Louisiana. The TPPI Tier 1 program targets primarily African-American youth in the urban areas and primarily Caucasian youth in the rural areasand plans to reach approximately 200 youth annually.
Teen Outreach Program (TOP) is an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.” The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health. It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be administered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. The program is proven effective in preventing teen pregnancy and increasing academic success among participants. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.
Louisiana Public Health Institute, $1,397,752 (2010–2014)
Located in New Orleans, the Louisiana Public Health Institute (LPHI) is a statewide non-profit organization that works to improve “population-level health outcomes.” Its mission is to “promote and improve health and quality of life through diverse public-private partnerships with government, foundations, academia, community groups and private businesses at the community, parish and state levels.” LPHI provides programming and services in a variety of areas including health policy and advocacy, health promotion and disease prevention, and health systems development.
With its TPPI Tier 1 grant, LPHI partners with nine other community organizations to administer programming to high-risk youth, ages 14–19, at 12 sites throughout Orleans Parish. Program partners include: The Beautiful Foundation, the City of New Orleans Healthy Start Program and JOB1 office of workforce development, Communities in Schools, Goodwill Industries, Institute for Women and Ethnic Studies, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center – New Orleans, Nikki’s Foundation, The Policy Research Group, and Tulane University School of Medicine. The overall goal of the program is to address the gaps in sexuality education and preventive services in Orleans Parish. LPHI and its partnering organizations implement two intervention models: Becoming a Responsible Teen and Safer Sex. Through the Tier1 program, LPHI plans to reach 438 youth annually.
Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) is an evidence-based HIV/AIDS-prevention curriculum designed for African-American youth ages 14–18. BART teaches students to reduce sexual risk-taking by promoting safer sex practices while also teaching that abstinence is the most effective way to prevent HIV and unintended pregnancy. The curriculum combines education with behavioral skills training on assertion, refusal, self-management, problem solving, risk recognition, and correct condom use. BART includes interactive activities, group discussions, and role-plays developed by teens. It is designed for implementation in community-based settings and with single-sex groups. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology found that it increased participant knowledge of HIV and AIDS and increased participants’ ability to manage the pressure to engage in unprotected sex as well as to provide information to their peers regarding safe sexual practices. The program was also found to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse, reduce the frequency of sex and the incidence of unprotected sex, and increase condom use (among males). Participants also stopped engaging in unprotected anal sex.
Safer Sex is a clinic-based intervention designed for high-risk, female adolescents. The intervention is delivered to participants in a one-on-one setting and seeks to reduce their incidence of STD infection and improve their efficacy of condom use. The intervention is administered by a female health educator and begins with the viewing of a brief video clip that uses celebrities to dramatize buying condoms as well as negotiating condom use. The video is followed by a 30-minute discussion with the health educator, which is tailored to meet the interests and risk level of the individual participant. The discussion addresses the consequences of having unprotected sex, methods for preventing unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV, secondary abstinence, and condom use skills. Participants also conduct a self-assessment to evaluate their sexual risk and are provided with written information about safer sex and contraception use. In addition, the intervention includes one-, three-, and six-month booster sessions at which time participants are invited back to the clinic for follow-up. An evaluation of the program published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine found, at a six-month follow-up, that the intervention reduced the incidence of multiple sexual partners among participants.
With Safer Sex, the TPPI Tier 1 program aims to enhance the services currently being provided in the area that regularly serve teens seeking reproductive health care.
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, $547,239 (2010–2014)
The Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine uses its Tier 2 grant to implement BUtiful (Be YOU! Talented, Informed, Fearless, Uncompromising and Loving!), an internet-based adaptation of SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering) with African-American young women ages 18–19 in New Orleans, Louisiana.
SiHLE is an evidence-based HIV/STD-prevention education program designed for African-American females ages 14–18 who are sexually active and at high risk for HIV. It is a peer-led, social skills training intervention based on social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power. The program consists of four, four-hour sessions that are administered on consecutive Saturdays in a community-based setting. Sessions are led by an African-American female adult and two peer-facilitators, ages 18–21. The sessions are designed to reinforce ethnic and gender pride and address HIV-prevention strategies, the transmission of STDs, communication and negotiation skills, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, healthy relationships, and personal empowerment. The program incorporates group discussion, lectures, games, and role-playing. Participants also complete homework assignments that provide opportunity for reflection and skills practice. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that, at six-month follow-up, program participants were significantly less likely to report being pregnant and significantly more likely to report having used condoms consistently in the previous six months than participants in the control group. In addition, at a twelve-month follow-up, participants were significantly more likely to report consistent condom use in the previous 30 days and having used a condom during last sexual intercourse than participants in the control group.
The online version of the curriculum allows participants to go through each lesson at their own pace and uses different “online learning and educational support materials, including a blog interactive activities.” The program lasts 12 weeks and is designed to “help young women develop strong self-images and encourage them to set positive goals based on self-affirming values.” It will serve 300 young women each year.
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program also supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administer the grant program in partnership with OAH.
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
The Louisiana PREP grant program provides funding to local community-based organizations to administer HIV/AIDS prevention programming to targeted high-risk communities. Programming will target African-American females ages 14–18 in the following parishes: Baton Rouge, Caddo, Calcasieu, Lafayette, Ouachita, and Tangipahoa. PREP sub-grantees administer SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering) to participants in community-based settings. (Please see the TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches section above for a description of SiHLE.)
Additional programming targets African-American males, ages 11–14, in East Baton Rouge Parish using Project AIM (Adult Identity Mentoring), an evidence-based youth development program. The program is based on the “Theory of Possible Selves,” which proposes that an individual’s motivation is determined by the ability to imagine his future self. Those that are capable of imagining both possible positive and negative futures are therefore more inclined to work toward their life goals. Project AIM seeks to help adolescents identify their future goals and consider how engaging in risky behavior may negatively impact their ability to achieve those goals. The school-based intervention consists of 10 sessions which are divided into four units: 1) Legacy, Role Models, and Peers; 2) Self-Projection: Expanding Visions of Possible Selves; 3) Self-Expression through Work: Development of Possible Self; and 4) Skills of Fulfilling Positive Future Possible Selves. The lessons consist of group discussions, interactive activities, and role-playing exercises to encourage youth to explore their personal interests, social surroundings, and their goals for their future adult life. Project AIM is designed for use with African-American youth ages 11–14 and is also appropriate for use with Latino students. Although it is a school-based program, it can also be implemented in community-based settings. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of Adolescent Medicine found, at a 19-week follow-up, that adolescents who participated in the program were significantly less likely to report having had sexual intercourse than participants in the control group; and, at a one-year follow-up, that male participants were significantly less likely to report having had sexual intercourse than participants in the control group.
HAP is also working with the Louisiana Public Health Institute to develop an adaptation of Project AIM that will be administered to young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) ages 15–19 in New Orleans Parish. (Please see the TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs section above for information about Louisiana Public Health Institute.)
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. ACF administers the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF administers the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
The Office of Louisiana Youth for Excellence (LYFE) is an initiative of Governor Bobby Jindal that was established right after the federal Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage program expired on June 30, 2009. It was developed to replace the former Office of Abstinence Education, known as the Governor’s Program on Abstinence, which was supported by the state’s Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage grant. Among its goals, LYFE aims to reduce the “incidence of premarital sexual activity” and lower the “premarital pregnancy rate” among Louisiana youth ages 12–18.
LYFE provides resources, technical assistance, and training to teachers to implement abstinence-only-until-marriage programming in schools. The office also hosts school assemblies and other events as well as provides information and resources to parents. In addition to providing classroom instruction, the office encourages students and teachers to establish LYFE clubs, scholastic clubs that provide students with a message of “sexual purity, good decision making, and leadership development.”
The office distributes Choosing the Best curricula to schools for implementation. The Choosing the Best series is one of the more popular abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in the country. The series is comprised of a number of curricula for students from sixth grade through high school: Choosing the Best WAY (sixth grade), Choosing the Best PATH (seventh grade), Choosing the Best LIFE (eighth grade), Choosing the Best JOURNEY (ninth and 10th grades), and Choosing the Best SOULMATE (11th and 12th grades). The series has been recently revised and the information about STDs is now medically accurate. However, Choosing the Best curricula continue to promote heterosexual marriage, rely on messages of fear and shame, and include biases about gender, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. For example, Choosing the Best PATH asks students to brainstorm the “emotional consequences” of premarital sex. Suggested answers include “guilt, feeling scared, ruined relationships, broken emotional bonds.”
According to the LYFE website, there are 59 public and religious schools in 33 Louisiana parishes that implement LYFE programming. These parishes include: Allen, Beauregard, Bienville, Calcasieu, Claiborne, DeSoto, East Baton Rouge, East Carroll, East Feliciana, Evangeline, Grant, Iberia, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lafourche, Lincoln, Morehouse, Natchitoches, Orleans, Ouachita, Rapides, Richland, Sabine, St. John, St. Landry, St. Mary, Tangipahoa, Vermillion, Vernon, Washington, Webster, and Winn.
SIECUS is not aware of any examples of model programs, policies, or best practices being implemented in Louisiana public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Louisianapublic schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information. Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
Adolescent Health Contact
Jack Carrel, MPH
Prevention Program Manager
Office of Public Health STD/HIV Program
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals
1450 Poydras Street, 21st Floor
New Orleans, LA 70112
Phone: (504) 568-7474
PREP State-Grant Coordinator
Jack Carrel, MPH
Prevention Program Manager
Office of Public Health STD/HIV Prevention
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals
1450 Poydras Street, 21st Floor
New Orleans, LA 70112
Phone: (504) 568-7474
Title V Abstinence-Only Coordinator
Louisiana Youth for Excellence
150 Third Street, Suite 129
Baton Rouge, LA 70801
Phone: (225) 342-5818
Newspapers in Louisiana
Political Blogs in Louisiana
This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(A)(1)(b), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(A)(1)(a), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(A)(2), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
Louisiana Handbook for School Administrators, p. 29, <http://www.winnpsb.org/WPSB/Bulletin%20741%20-%20Louisiana%20Handbook%20for%20School%20Administrators.pdf>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 281(A)(b)(3).
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(A)(3), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(F), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:281(A)(4), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=80423>.
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:7(13)(b), <http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=81172>.
Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>. Note: Louisiana did not participate in the full 2009 YRBS.
“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
Ibid., Table 3.2.
U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity., Table 3.3.
This section provides data from 2008, the most recent year for which the CDC has reported HIV/AIDS data for young people ages 13–19. For this reason, all the data presented is from 2008 for the purposes of direct comparison.
HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
Slide 9: “Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, Table 20.
Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
Ibid; see also Table 33: “Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, 121.
Louisiana Public Health Institute, “LPHI and Louisiana Partner Organizations Receive Federal Grant Awards to Address Teen Pregnancy and STDs,” 2 March 2011, accessed 2 June 2011, <http://lphi.org/CMSuploads/Master-One-pagers-23489.doc>.
Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 56–59.
“Be Proud! Be Responsible!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=1&PageTypeID=2>; see also “Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Be Proud! Be Responsible!” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/be_proud_responsible.html>.
Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections, 56–59.
Louisiana Public Health Institute, “LPHI and Louisiana Partner Organizations Receive Federal Grant Awards to Address Teen Pregnancy and STDs,” 2 March 2011, accessed 2 June 2011, <http://lphi.org/CMSuploads/Master-One-pagers-23489.doc>.
“Making Proud Choices!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 15 April 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=128>.
Information provided by Lisa Richardson, director of research and development for the Institute of Women and Ethnic Studies, 28 June 2011.
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals Office of Public Health Family Planning Program, “About the Program,” accessed 2 June 2011, <http://www.dhh.state.la.us/offices/page.asp?ID=262&Detail=6291>.
“Louisiana DHH Office of Public Health,” Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Summary of Funded Evidence-Based Programs for 2010, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health, accessed 2 June 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/grantees/models_2010_programs.html>.
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Fran Simon, “Sex Education Goes Online,” New Wave, Tulane University.
“Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM)” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=573>; see also “Project AIM: Adult Identity Mentoring, A Youth Development Intervention for HIV Risk Reduction,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, accessed 18 August 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/prev_prog/rep/packages/pdf/aim.pdf>.
“Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM)” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=573>.
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“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM),” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/adult_identity_mentoring_project_aim.html>.
Information provided by Jack Carrel, prevention program manager for the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, STD/HIV Program, 15 April 2011.
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Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best, Inc., 2001-2007).
The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health.