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Kentucky State Profile Fiscal Year 2010

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Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References

 
Kentucky
 
In Fiscal Year 2010[1], the state of Kentucky received:
  • Personal Responsibility Education Program funds totaling $696,997
  • Title V Abstinence Education Program funds totaling $839,352
 
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Kentucky received:
  • Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative funds totaling $963,331
 
 
Sexuality Education Law and Policy
There is no state law in Kentucky regarding sex education, however, all Kentucky schools follow the department of education’s Program of Studies, required instruction for students in grades six through 12.  Through personal and physical health education, students learn “how decision-making relates to responsible sexual behavior (e.g., abstinence, preventing pregnancy, preventing HIV/STDs), impacts physical, mental and social well being of an individual.”[2] Students also learn about the basic reproductive system and functions. No specific curriculum is required. However, state funds are available for local health departments to help young people postpone sexual involvement.
 
Kentuckydoes not require parental permission for students to participate in sexuality or HIV/AIDS education nor does it say whether parents or guardians may remove their children from such classes.
     
See Kentucky Department of Education’s Program of Studies.
 
 
 
Recent Legislation
 
Bill to Require Schools to Teach Comprehensive Sex Education
House Bill 273, introduced in February 2011, would have required school districts offering sex education in grades five through 12 to provide instruction that is medically accurate, age-appropriate, and that teaches “the benefits of delaying sexual activity” while also stressing “the importance of effectively using contraceptives and barrier methods to prevent unintended pregnancy and protect against [STDs], including HIV.” Additional provisions of the law would have required instruction to help students develop relationship and communication skills as well as analytical skills in order to form healthy relationships and make “healthy decisions about sexuality,” among other guidelines. The bill was assigned to the Education Committee. No further action was taken on the bill and it died in committee.
 
Bill to Establish Guidelines for Sex Education
Senate Bill 85, introduced in February of 2011, would have required school districts and community centers that offer sex education to provide medically accurate, culturally sensitive, and age-appropriate instruction to students that includes information on both abstinence and contraception.  It also would have required an organization or entity receiving state funds that offers sex education or pregnancy prevention programming to adopt science-based content standards and provide medically accurate, culturally sensitive, and age-appropriate comprehensive sexuality education. In addition, the bill would have given the state the power to refuse federal funding for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. The bill was referred to the Veterans, Military Affairs, and Public Protection Committee. No further action was taken on the bill and it died in committee.
 
 
 
Youth Sexual Health Data
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Kentucky. The data collected represents the most current information available.
 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data [3] 
  • In 2009, 48% of female high school students and 49% of male high school students in Kentucky reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 4% of female high school students and 9% of male high school students in Kentucky reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 11% of female high school students and 15% of male high school students in Kentucky reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 36% of female high school students and 31% of male high school students in Kentucky reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 55% of females and 66% of males in Kentucky reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 27% of females and 19% of males in Kentucky reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 18% of females and 29% of males in Kentucky reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 85% of high school students in Kentucky reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
  • Kentucky’s teen birth rate currently ranks 7th in the United States, with a rate of 55.6 births per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 41.5 births per 1,000.[4] In 2008, there were a total of 6,470 live births reported to young women ages 15–19 in Kentucky.[5]    
 
  • In 2005, Kentucky’s teen pregnancy rate ranked 23rd in the United States, with a rate of 66 pregnancies per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 70 pregnancies per 1,000.[6]  There were a total of 9,030 pregnancies among young women ages 15–19 reported in Kentucky.[7]
 
  • In 2005, Kentucky’s teen abortion rate ranked 49th in the United States, with a rate of 6 abortions per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 19 abortions per 1,000.[8]
 
HIV and AIDS[9]
  • Kentucky’s HIV infection rate ranks 18th in the United States, with a rate of 10.2 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 19.5 cases per 100,000.[10]
 
  • Kentucky ranks 21st in cases of HIV infection diagnosed in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 435 new cases of HIV infection diagnosed in Kentucky.[11]
 
  • Kentucky’s HIV infection rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 20th in the United States, with a rate of 6.1 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 9.1 cases per 100,000.[12]
 
  • Kentucky ranks 28th in number of reported AIDS cases in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 294 new AIDS cases reported in Kentucky.[13]
 
  • Kentucky’s AIDS rate ranks 26th in the United States, with a rate of 6.9 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000.[14]
 
  • Kentucky’s AIDS rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 31st in the United States, with a rate of 0.8 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000.[15]
 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Kentuckyranks 35th in reported cases of Chlamydia among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 15.5 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 19.51 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 4,374 cases of Chlamydia reported among young people ages 15–19 in Kentucky.[16]
 
  • Kentuckyranks 22nd in reported cases of gonorrhea among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 4.16 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 4.52 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 1,174 cases of gonorrhea reported among young people ages 15–19 in Kentucky.[17]
 
  • Kentuckyranks 23rd in reported cases of primary and secondary syphilis among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 0.02 per cases 1,000 compared to the national rate of 0.04 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 5 cases of syphilis reported among young people ages 15–19 in Kentucky.[18]
 
 
 
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) implements the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
 
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 1 grantees in Kentucky.
 
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
  • There is one TPPI Tier 2 Innovative Approaches grantee in Kentucky, University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc., which received $963,331 for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc., $963,331 (2010–2014)
The University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc. utilizes its Tier 2 grant to implement and test a combined adaptation of Reducing the Risk and Love Notes. The program targets at-risk youth ages 14–19, such as immigrants, refugees, youth in foster care, youth from low-income neighborhoods, and youth from areas with high rates of teen pregnancy. The program serves approximately 360 young people each year. 
 
Reducing the Risk: Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy, STD and HIV is an evidence-based, pregnancy-, STD-, and HIV-prevention curriculum designed for classroom use with students in the ninth and tenth grades. It is appropriate for use with multi-ethnic populations.[19]  Reducing the Risk aims to reduce high-risk behaviors among participants and emphasizes strategies for abstaining from sex or practicing safer sex. The 16-lesson curriculum addresses both abstinence and contraception use and includes experiential activities that teach students to develop refusal, negotiation, and communication skills. An evaluation of the program published in Family Planning Perspectives found that it increased parent-child communication, especially among Latino youth, delayed the initiation of sexual intercourse, and reduced incidence of unprotected sex among lower-risk youth who participated in the program.[20]
 
Love Notesis a research-based curriculum for at-risk young people ages 16–24, including those who are pregnant or parenting.  It “encourages youth to cultivate a vision for good love and builds the base of knowledge and skills necessary to form and maintain healthy relationships.”[21] Love Notes consists of 15 lessons that focus on communication skills and healthy relationship development. 
 
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program also supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implement the grant program in partnership with OAH.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 2 Communitywide Initiatives grantees in Kentucky.
 
 
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) implements the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
 
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
  • The Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Families received $696,997 in federal PREP funds for Fiscal Year 2010.
  • The agency provides sub-grants to 21 local public and private entities.
 
The Kentucky PREP state-grant program awards funding to local and county health departments and community-based organizations to implement evidence-based programs in public schools. Programming serves youth ages 10–19. A total of 21 local public and private entities were awarded funding to deliver programming to a total of 47 counties across the state. Community-based organizations that were awarded funds must partner with their local health department for implementation purposes. Sub-grantees are required to implement Teen Outreach Program (TOP) or Reducing the Risk, which is recommended specifically for use with high school students. (Please see the information above on the University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc.for information on Reducing the Risk.)  
 
TOP is an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.”[22] The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health.[23] It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be delivered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.[24]
 
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. ACF implements the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
  • There are no PREIS grantees in Kentucky.
 
 
 
Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF implements the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
  • The Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Families received $839,352 in federal Title V abstinence-only funding for Fiscal Year 2010.
  • The agency provides sub-grants to 29 local public and private entities.
  • In Kentucky, the match is provided through a combination of state revenue and in-kind services. The Cabinet of Health contributes $72,013 in direct revenue. The remaining amount is provided by sub-grantees through in-kind services.
 
The Kentucky Title V Abstinence-Only Program awards funding to local and county health departments and community-based organizations to provide abstinence-only programs in public schools to students in grades five through eight. A total of 29 local public and private entities implement abstinence-only programs in schools in 56 counties statewide. Sub-grantees must implement Choosing the Best curricula or Postponing Sexual Involvement.
 
The Choosing the Best series is one of the more popular abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in the country.  The series is comprised of a number of curricula for students from sixth grade through high school:  Choosing the Best WAY (sixth grade), Choosing the Best PATH (seventh grade), Choosing the Best LIFE (eighth grade), Choosing the Best JOURNEY (ninth and 10th grades), and Choosing the Best SOULMATE (11th and 12th grades).  The series has been recently revised and the information about STDs is now medically accurate.  However, Choosing the Best curricula continue to promote heterosexual marriage, rely on messages of fear and shame, and include biases about gender, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options.  For example, Choosing the Best PATH asks students to brainstorm the “emotional consequences” of premarital sex.  Suggested answers include “guilt, feeling scared, ruined relationships, broken emotional bonds.”[25]
 
Postponing Sexual Involvement is a sexuality education curriculum designed for students in grades seven and eight that is intended to help students delay sexual activity. The curriculum addresses four main topic areas: sexual abstinence, life skills, human sexuality, and contraception. Postponing Sexual Involvement emphasizes that abstinence is the best way to avoid unintended pregnancy and STDs and also teaches participants that young adolescents are not yet mature enough to manage the consequences of sexual activity. The curriculum includes five sessions that each last between 45 and 60 minutes and focus on equipping youth with the skills to resist peer pressure to engage in sexual activity. The lessons include experiential activities and skill-building exercises to teach students decision-making, goal-setting, refusal, and negotiation skills. Lessons also cover human growth and development, the effectiveness of different contraception methods, and developing healthy sexual attitudes and values. Postponing Sexual Involvement is appropriate for use in school-based settings and can be implemented by teachers or by high school students trained peer instructors. Some evaluations of the program have shown positive results in the program’s ability to help students delay sexual initiation; however, the results have shown varying degrees of effectiveness among male and female students, and no long-term effect in delaying sexual activity.[26]
 
 
 
Kentucky TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010
Grantee
Award
Fiscal Years
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI)
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc.
$963,331
2010–2014
Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP)
PREP State-Grant Program
Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Families (federal grant)
$696,997
2010
Sub-grantees:
 
 
Allen County
 
2010
Barren River School District
 
2010
Boyd County
 
2010
Brighton Center
 
2010
Clark County
 
2010
Estill County
 
2010
Floyd County
 
2010
Garrard County
 
2010
Gateway County
 
2010
Graves County
 
2010
Green River School District
 
2010
Kentucky River School District
 
2010
Knox County
 
2010
Lake Cumberland
 
2010
Lincoln County
 
2010
Magoffin County
 
2010
Marshall County
 
2010
Montgomery County
 
2010
Purchase County
 
2010
Whitley County
 
2010
Title V Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only)
Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Families (federal grant)
  $839,352
2010
Sub-grantees:
 
 
Allen County
 
2010
Barren River School District
 
2010
Bullitt County
 
2010
Christian County
 
2010
Clark County
 
2010
Estill County
 
2010
Fayette County
 
2010
Garrard County
 
2010
Green River School District
 
2010
Jessamine County
 
2010
Johnson County
 
2010
Kentucky River School District
 
2010
Knox County
 
2010
Lawrence County
 
2010
Lincoln Trail School District
 
2010
Magoffin County
 
2010
Marshall County
 
2010
Mercer County
 
2010
Monroe County
 
2010
Montgomery County
 
2010
New Beginnings Winchester
 
2010
New Hope Center
 
2010
North Central School District
 
2010
Purchase District
 
2010
Todd County
 
2010
WEDCO District
 
2010
Whitley County
 
2010
Woodford County
 
2010
TOTAL
  $839,352
 
 
GRAND TOTAL
$2,499,680
2010
 
 
 
Comprehensive Approaches to Sexuality Education
 
SIECUS is not aware of any examples of model programs, policies, or best practices being implemented in Kentucky public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.
 
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Kentucky public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information.  Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
 
 
 
Points of Contact
 
Adolescent Health Contact[27]
Benita Decker, RNC
Adolescent Health Initiatives Coordinator
Division of Women’s Health
Cabinet for Health and Family Services
275 East Main Street, HS2GW-A
Frankfort, KY  40621
Phone: (502) 564-3236 ext. 3065
 
PREP and Title V Abstinence-Only State-Grant Coordinator
Benita Decker, RNC
Adolescent Health Initiatives Coordinator
Division of Women’s Health
Cabinet for Health and Family Services
275 East Main Street, HS2GW-A
Frankfort, KY  40621
Phone: (502) 564-3236 ext. 3065
 
 
 
Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
ACLU of Kentucky
Louisville, KY
Phone: (502) 581-1181
 
 
AIDS Services Center Coalition, Inc.
Louisville, KY
Phone: (502) 574-5490
 
 
Kentucky Equality Federation
Lexington, KY
Phone: (877) KEF-5775
 
 
KentuckyEquality Action Center
London, KY
Phone: (877) KEF-5775
 
KentuckyReligious Coalition for
Reproductive Choice
Louisville, KY
Phone: (866) 606-0988
 
Planned Parenthood of Louisville
Louisville, KY
Phone: (502) 584-2473
 
 
 
 
Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
The Family Foundation of Kentucky
Lexington, KY
Phone: (859) 255-5400
www.tffky.org
 
Kentucky Right to Life Association
Louisville, KY
Phone: (502) 895-5959
 
Heritage of Kentucky
Lexington, KY
Phone: (859) 278-8109
 
New Hope Center
Crestview Hills, KY
Phone: (859) 341-0766
 
 
 
Media Outlets
 
Newspapers in Kentucky[28]
The Courier-Journal
Louisville, KY
Phone: (502) 582-4011
 
Daily News
Bowling Green, KY
Phone: (270) 781-1700 www.bgdailynews.com
 
Lexington Herald-Leader
Lexington, KY
Phone: (859) 231-3576
 
Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer
Owensboro, KY
Phone: (270) 926-0123
 
The Kentucky Post
Cincinnati, OH
Phone: (513) 852-4042
 
 
 
Political Blogs in Kentucky
Barefoot and Progressive
 
Blue Bluegrass
 
 
Blue in the Grass
 
United We Stand: Kentucky’s LGBTI News
 
 
 

[1]This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th.  The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
[2]Kentucky Department of Education, Program of Studies, p. 502, <http://www.education.ky.gov/users/jwyatt/POS/POS.pdf#page=509>
[3]Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>. 
[4]“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
[5]“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
[6]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, (Washington, DC: Guttmacher Institute, January 2010), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf>, Table 3.1.
[7]Ibid., Table 3.2.
[8]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, Table 3.3.
[9]This section provides data from 2008, the most recent year for which the CDC has reported HIV/AIDS data for young people ages 13–19. For this reason, all the data presented is from 2008 for the purposes of direct comparison.
[10]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
[11]Ibid.
[12]Slide 9: “Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[13]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, Table 20.
[14]Ibid.
[15]Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[16]“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov/>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
[17]Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
[18]Ibid; see also Table 33: “Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, 121.
[19]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 22.
[20]Ibid., 23–24.
[21]“Love Notes: Making Relationships Work for Young Adults & Young Parents,”  The Dibble Institute, accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.dibbleinstitute.org/?page_id=1728>.
[22]Saras Chung and Annie Philipps, Promoting Mental Health and Well-being in Adolescents: Recommendations for Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program, (Eureka, MO: Wyman Teen Outreach Program, 2010), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.wymantop.org/pdfs/TOP_Positive_Well-Being.pdf>, 3.
[23]Ibid, 9.
[24]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Teen Outreach Program,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/teen_outreach_program.html>.
[25]Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best, Inc., 2001-2007). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of the Choosing the Bestseries at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
[26]“Postponing Sexual Involvement/Human Sexuality Educational Series,” Promising Practices Network, October 2006, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=29>.
[27]The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health. 
[28]This section is a list of major newspapers in the state and is by no means exhaustive of local print outlets.
 
National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education