Hawaii State Profile Fiscal Year 2010
Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References
In Fiscal Year 2010, the state of Hawaii received:
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Hawaii received:
Hawaiilaw states that sexuality education programs must provide “medically accurate and factual information that is age appropriate and includes education on abstinence, contraception, and methods of disease prevention to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus.”
Hawaii’s education policy states that, “in order to help students make decisions that promote healthy behaviors, the Department of Education shall instruct students that abstentionfrom sexual intercourse is the surest and most responsible way to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] such as HIV/AIDS, and consequent emotional distress.” The policy specifies that programs shall help students remain abstinent, help currently sexually active students become abstinent, and “provide youth with information on and skill development in the use of protective devices and methods for the purpose of preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.”
Hawaii’s education policy further states that birth control devices may be discussed during human reproduction studies; however, “the distribution of condoms and other prophylactic devices to students shall be prohibited in the classroom, on the school campus, or at any school-related activities.”
Hawaii’s Content and Performance Standards for health courses also state that sexual health should be addressed and tells schools which content areas are to be covered, but does not give curricula guidelines, suggest curricula, or go into detail as to what topics should be discussed.
Hawaii does not require parental permission for students to participate in sexuality or HIV/AIDS education, nor does it say whether parents or guardians can remove their children from such classes.
See Hawaii Revised Statute § 321-11.1; Hawaii Board of Education Policies 2100, 2110, and 2245; and Hawaii Content and Performance Standards III Database.
Bill to Require Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Public Schools
House Bill 685 and Senate Bill 922, identical bills introduced in January 2011, would have amended current statute on sex education to include additional provisions. The legislation would have required “sexuality education health programs” supported by state funds to provide instruction to help students develop skills in relationships, communication, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and stress management in order to form healthy relationships and make “healthy decisions about sexuality….” Instruction would have also been required to encourage students to communicate with their parents and other trusted adults about sexuality. Additionally, the legislation would have required all public schools to teach medically accurate and age-appropriate, comprehensive sexuality education. Such instruction would have been required not to “discriminate on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, national origin, disability, religion, sexual orientation, or gender identity,” among other guidelines. SB 922 passed the Senate and was referred to the House Committees on Health, Education, and Finance. No further action was taken on the bill and it died in committee.
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Hawaii. The data collected represents the most current information available.
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
HIV and AIDS
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) administers the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
HawaiiYouth Services Network, $999,999 (2010–2014)
Hawaii Youth Services Network(HYSN) is a non-profit youth advocacy organization made up of over 50 youth-serving agencies and organizations across Hawaii. HYSN provides recreational, educational, preventive, treatment, counseling, and shelter services. It aims to educate Hawaii’s communities and decisionmakers and to build coalitions and networks “that provide for increased effectiveness and decreased costs of youth services.”
With its TPPI funding, HYSN operates the “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific,” a coordinated effort among several local organizations to provide evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programming to youth ages 11–15. The initiative aims to increase the number of adolescents in Hawaii who abstain from sex and delay sexual initiation, or use effective contraception and disease prevention methods and have fewer sexual partners among those who are sexually active. The program replicates Making Proud Choices! and Draw the Line/Respect the Line.
Making Proud Choices! is an evidence-based STD-, HIV-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum for young adolescents ages 11–13 that is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white populations. The curriculum aims to help youth understand the poor reasoning and decision making that can lead to STD/HIV infection and/or unintended pregnancy, as well as to increase their confidence, negotiation skills, and self-efficacy in using condoms. The program consists of eight, one-hour sessions and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings. Making Proud Choices! includes interactive and skill-building activities that are designed to “increase comfort with practicing condom use, address concerns about negative effects of practicing safer sex, and build skills in condom use and negotiation.” Findings from an evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association show that program participants reported more consistent condom use and less unprotected sex as well as a higher frequency of condom use than those in the control group.
Draw the Line/Respect the Line is an evidence-based sexuality education program designed for use with students in grades six through eight. The three-year program focuses on teaching youth to postpone sexual involvement while providing information about condoms and contraception. The school-based curriculum includes group discussion, small group activities, and role-playing exercises to teach youth how to establish and maintain boundaries regarding sexual behavior. Draw the Line/Respect the Line consists of 19 sessions divided between grades six through eight. Lessons provided for sixth grade students address using refusal skills; lessons provided in the seventh grade focus on setting sexual limits, the consequences of unprotected sex, and managing sexual pressure; eighth grade students practice refusal and interpersonal skills and receive HIV/STD-prevention education. The program also includes individual teacher consultations and parent engagement through homework activities. Although it is designed for use in the classroom, the program may also be administered in a community-based setting. An evaluation of the program published in the American Journal of Public Health found, at a one-, two-, and three-year follow-up, that male participants were significantly less likely to report ever having had sexual intercourse or having had sexual intercourse during the previous 12 months compared to participants in the control group.
Ten organizations partner with HYSN to administer programming in school-based, community-based, after-school, residential care, and foster care settings: Child and Family Service, Family Support Hawaii, Hale `Opio Kauai, Hale Kipa, Hui Malama Learning Center, Kokua Kalihi Valley Comprehensive Family Services, Maui Youth and Family Services, Parents and Children Together, Planned Parenthood of Hawaii, and Salvation Army Family Intervention Services. The program primarily serves Pacific Islander and Filipino youth in school-based settings. It plans to serve approximately 1,890 youth each year.
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
Universityof Hawaii, $969,936 (2010–2014)
The University of Hawaii uses its Tier 2 grant to implement and evaluate a culturally relevant curriculum that it created, Pono Choices, in urban, suburban, and rural areas throughout Hawaii. The program is intended for middle school students in grades seven and eight and will serve approximately 6,000 young people each year.
Pono Choices “has been developed through an approach which incorporates medically accurate information, character education, and a strong focus on Hawaiian cultural values.” It has three components—the first focuses on “goals, dreams and adolescent sexuality;” the second focuses on knowledge, namely the “etiology, transmission, [beliefs about], and prevention of HIV, STDs, and teenage pregnancy;” and the third highlights self-efficacy and negotiation and refusal skills. The curriculum consists of 10 one-hour sessions and is appropriate for use in school- and community-based settings.
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. TPPI Tier 2 totals $9.8 million. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administer the grant program in partnership with OAH.
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
The Hawaii State Department of Health will partner with the County of Hawaii’s Prosecuting Attorney to administer the state’s PREP grant program. Funding will be made available to local public and private entities to provide community-based programming to youth in Hawaii County (Hawaii Island). Programming will target young people ages 15–19, including students in grades nine through 12, Native Hawaiian and Filipino youth, youth in foster care, youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, or queer, and pregnant and parenting teens.
Local entities will provide programming using Teen Outreach Program (TOP), an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.” The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health. It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be administered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. The program is proven effective in preventing teen pregnancy and increasing academic success among participants. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF administers the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
SIECUS has identified some examples of model programs, policies, and best practices being implemented in Hawaii public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.
Comprehensive Sex Education Programs in Public Schools
HawaiiYouth Services Network Adaptation of Making Proud Choices
In 2007, the Hawaii Youth Services Network (HYSN), a coalition of more than 50 youth-serving organizations in Hawaii, implemented science-based, sex education programs in Hawaii public and charter schools to address the high rates of unintended pregnancy and teen birth among Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) youth in the state. HYSN worked with curriculum specialists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Hawaii Department of Health, and local partners to adapt Making Proud Choices! for use with A/PI young people. The program was implemented in “20 public school classrooms” and two charter schools with middle and high school students.
As a result of HYSN’s work, more than 900 middle school and high school students received programming. The organization is currently working to expand these efforts through its “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific,” which aims to serve 1,890 youth annually over the next five years.
Recent efforts by HYSN have also focused on working with the Hawaii Department of Education and local schools to implement Making Proud Choices! in additional middle schools and high schools, as well as training teachers to administer the curriculum. The organization is currently partnering with the department of education through its “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific” to provide training and technical support to school personnel. (Please see the TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based programs section for more information on the HYSN and Making Proud Choices!.)
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Hawaii public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information. Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
Adolescent Health Contact
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Hawaii Department of Health
Children and Youth Wellness
741-A Sunset Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96816
Phone: (808) 733-4056
PREP State-Grant Coordinator
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Hawaii Department of Health
Children and Youth Wellness
741-A Sunset Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96816
Phone: (808) 733-4056
Newspapers in Hawaii
Phone: (808) 737-2300
Political Blogs in Hawaii
This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
Haw. Rev. Stat. § 321-11.1(a), <http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0321/HRS_0321-0011_0001.htm >
Haw. Board of Ed. Policy 2110(a), <http://lilinote.k12.hi.us/STATE/BOE/POL1.NSF/85255a0a0010ae82852555340060479d/1bb88fd5ec2ea5940a2566a3000110ef?OpenDocument>
Haw. Board of Ed. Policy 2110(c), <http://lilinote.k12.hi.us/STATE/BOE/POL1.NSF/85255a0a0010ae82852555340060479d/1bb88fd5ec2ea5940a2566a3000110ef?OpenDocument>
Haw. Board of Ed. Policy 2245, <http://lilinote.k12.hi.us/STATE/BOE/POL1.NSF/85255a0a0010ae82852555340060479d/da81bd16b557a9590a2566a30007780f?OpenDocument>
“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
Ibid., Table 3.2.
U.S.Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, Table 3.3.
HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
“Making Proud Choices!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 15 April 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=128>.
“Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Emerging Answers (Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2007), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/ea2007/desc/draw_pr.pdf>; see also “Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/draw_the_line_respect_the_line.html>.
Information provided by Judith Clark, executive director of the Hawaii Youth Services Network, 14 June 2011.
Information provided by Noella Kong, adolescent health coordinator for the Hawaii State Department of Health, 21 September 2011.
Saras Chung and Annie Philipps, Promoting Mental Health and Well-being in Adolescents: Recommendations for Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program, (Eureka, MO: Wyman Teen Outreach Program, 2010), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.wymantop.org/pdfs/TOP_Positive_Well-Being.pdf>, 3.
“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Teen Outreach Program,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/teen_outreach_program.html>.
This is by no means a complete list of all comprehensive programming and policies related to sexuality education, but rather some examples of best practices and model programs that SIECUS identified.
“Hawaii Youth Services Network–Program Adaptation in Action,” Adolescent Reproductive Health: Hawaii Success Stories, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last modified 17 May 2010, accessed 27 May 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/Reproductivehealth/AdolescentReproHealth/Hawaii.htm>.
The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health.