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Hawaii State Profile Fiscal Year 2010

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Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References

 
Hawaii
 
In Fiscal Year 2010, the state of Hawaii received:
  • Personal Responsibility Education Program funds totaling $250,000
 
In Fiscal Year 2010[1], local entities in Hawaii received:
  • Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative funds totaling $1,969,935
 
 
Sexuality Education Law and Policy
Hawaiilaw states that sexuality education programs must provide “medically accurate and factual information that is age appropriate and includes education on abstinence, contraception, and methods of disease prevention to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus.”[2]
 
Hawaii’s education policy states that, “in order to help students make decisions that promote healthy behaviors, the Department of Education shall instruct students that abstentionfrom sexual intercourse is the surest and most responsible way to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] such as HIV/AIDS, and consequent emotional distress.”[3] The policy specifies that programs shall help students remain abstinent, help currently sexually active students become abstinent, and “provide youth with information on and skill development in the use of protective devices and methods for the purpose of preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.”[4]
 
Hawaii’s education policy further states that birth control devices may be discussed during human reproduction studies; however, “the distribution of condoms and other prophylactic devices to students shall be prohibited in the classroom, on the school campus, or at any school-related activities.”[5]
 
Hawaii’s Content and Performance Standards for health courses also state that sexual health should be addressed and tells schools which content areas are to be covered, but does not give curricula guidelines, suggest curricula, or go into detail as to what topics should be discussed.
 
Hawaii does not require parental permission for students to participate in sexuality or HIV/AIDS education, nor does it say whether parents or guardians can remove their children from such classes.
 
 
 
 
Recent Legislation
 
Bill to Require Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Public Schools
House Bill 685 and Senate Bill 922, identical bills introduced in January 2011, would have amended current statute on sex education to include additional provisions. The legislation would have required “sexuality education health programs” supported by state funds to provide instruction to help students develop skills in relationships, communication, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and stress management in order to form healthy relationships and make “healthy decisions about sexuality….” Instruction would have also been required to encourage students to communicate with their parents and other trusted adults about sexuality. Additionally, the legislation would have required all public schools to teach medically accurate and age-appropriate, comprehensive sexuality education. Such instruction would have been required not to “discriminate on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, national origin, disability, religion, sexual orientation, or gender identity,” among other guidelines.  SB 922 passed the Senate and was referred to the House Committees on Health, Education, and Finance. No further action was taken on the bill and it died in committee.
 
 
 
Youth Sexual Health Data
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Hawaii. The data collected represents the most current information available.
 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data[6]
  • In 2009, 46% of female high school students and 43% of male high school students in Hawaii reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 4% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students in Hawaii reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 11% of female high school students and 11% of male high school students in Hawaii reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 34% of female high school students and 27% of male high school students in Hawaii reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 34% of females and 65% of males in Hawaii reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 16% of females and 13% of males in Hawaii reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 26% of females and 36% of males in Hawaii reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 81% of high school students in Hawaii reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
  • Hawaii’s teen birth rate currently ranks 24th in the United States, with a rate of 42.1 births per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 41.5 births per 1,000.[7] In 2008, there were a total of 1,591 live births reported to young women ages 15–19 in Hawaii.[8]
 
  • In 2005, Hawaii’s teen pregnancy rate ranked 18th in the United States, with a rate of 71 pregnancies per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 70 pregnancies per 1,000.[9]  There were a total of 2,890 pregnancies among young women ages 15–19 reported in Hawaii.[10]
 
  • In 2005, Hawaii’s teen abortion rate ranked 8th in the United States, with a rate of 25 abortions per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 19 abortions per 1,000.[11]
 
HIV and AIDS
  • Hawaii’s AIDS rate ranks 40th in the United States, with a rate of 3 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000.[12]
 
  • Hawaii ranks 42nd in number of reported AIDS cases in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 39 new AIDS cases reported in Hawaii.[13]
 
  • Hawaii’s AIDS rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 41st in the United States, with a rate of 0 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000.[14]
 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Hawaiiranks 27th in reported cases of Chlamydia among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 18.29 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 19.51 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 1,500 cases of Chlamydia reported among young people ages 15–19 in Hawaii.[15]
 
  • Hawaiiranks 40th in reported cases of gonorrhea among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 1.32 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 4.52 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 108 cases of gonorrhea reported among young people ages 15–19 in Hawaii.[16]
 
  • There are no available statewide data on the rate of syphilis among young people in Hawaii.
 
Back to Top
 
 
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) administers the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities. Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
 
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
  • There is one TPPI Tier 1 grantee in Hawaii, Hawaii Youth Services Network, which received $999,999 for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
HawaiiYouth Services Network, $999,999 (2010–2014)
Hawaii Youth Services Network(HYSN) is a non-profit youth advocacy organization made up of over 50 youth-serving agencies and organizations across Hawaii.  HYSN provides recreational, educational, preventive, treatment, counseling, and shelter services. It aims to educate Hawaii’s communities and decisionmakers and to build coalitions and networks “that provide for increased effectiveness and decreased costs of youth services.”[17]
 
With its TPPI funding, HYSN operates the “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific,” a coordinated effort among several local organizations to provide evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programming to youth ages 11–15. The initiative aims to increase the number of adolescents in Hawaii who abstain from sex and delay sexual initiation, or use effective contraception and disease prevention methods and have fewer sexual partners among those who are sexually active. The program replicates Making Proud Choices! and Draw the Line/Respect the Line.
 
Making Proud Choices! is an evidence-based STD-, HIV-, and pregnancy-prevention curriculum for young adolescents ages 11–13 that is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white populations.  The curriculum aims to help youth understand the poor reasoning and decision making that can lead to STD/HIV infection and/or unintended pregnancy, as well as to increase their confidence, negotiation skills, and self-efficacy in using condoms. The program consists of eight, one-hour sessions and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings. Making Proud Choices! includes interactive and skill-building activities that are designed to “increase comfort with practicing condom use, address concerns about negative effects of practicing safer sex, and build skills in condom use and negotiation.”[18] Findings from an evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association show that program participants reported more consistent condom use and less unprotected sex as well as a higher frequency of condom use than those in the control group.[19]
 
Draw the Line/Respect the Line is an evidence-based sexuality education program designed for use with students in grades six through eight. The three-year program focuses on teaching youth to postpone sexual involvement while providing information about condoms and contraception. The school-based curriculum includes group discussion, small group activities, and role-playing exercises to teach youth how to establish and maintain boundaries regarding sexual behavior. Draw the Line/Respect the Line consists of 19 sessions divided between grades six through eight. Lessons provided for sixth grade students address using refusal skills; lessons provided in the seventh grade focus on setting sexual limits, the consequences of unprotected sex, and managing sexual pressure; eighth grade students practice refusal and interpersonal skills and receive HIV/STD-prevention education. The program also includes individual teacher consultations and parent engagement through homework activities. Although it is designed for use in the classroom, the program may also be administered in a community-based setting. An evaluation of the program published in the American Journal of Public Health found, at a one-, two-, and three-year follow-up, that male participants were significantly less likely to report ever having had sexual intercourse or having had sexual intercourse during the previous 12 months compared to participants in the control group.[20]
 
Ten organizations partner with HYSN to administer programming in school-based, community-based, after-school, residential care, and foster care settings: Child and Family Service, Family Support Hawaii, Hale `Opio Kauai, Hale Kipa, Hui Malama Learning Center, Kokua Kalihi Valley Comprehensive Family Services, Maui Youth and Family Services, Parents and Children Together, Planned Parenthood of Hawaii, and Salvation Army Family Intervention Services. The program primarily serves Pacific Islander and Filipino youth in school-based settings. It plans to serve approximately 1,890 youth each year.[21]
 
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
  • There is one TPPI Tier 2 Innovative Approaches grantee in Hawaii, University of Hawaii, which received $969,936 for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
Universityof Hawaii, $969,936 (2010–2014)
The University of Hawaii uses its Tier 2 grant to implement and evaluate a culturally relevant curriculum that it created, Pono Choices, in urban, suburban, and rural areas throughout Hawaii. The program is intended for middle school students in grades seven and eight and will serve approximately 6,000 young people each year. 
 
Pono Choices “has been developed through an approach which incorporates medically accurate information, character education, and a strong focus on Hawaiian cultural values.”[22] It has three components—the first focuses on “goals, dreams and adolescent sexuality;” the second focuses on knowledge, namely the “etiology, transmission, [beliefs about], and prevention of HIV, STDs, and teenage pregnancy;” and the third highlights self-efficacy and negotiation and refusal skills.[23]  The curriculum consists of 10 one-hour sessions and is appropriate for use in school- and community-based settings. 
 
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. TPPI Tier 2 totals $9.8 million. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administer the grant program in partnership with OAH.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 2 Communitywide Initiatives grantees in Hawaii.
 
 
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010–2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
 
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
  • Hawaii did not submit an application for Fiscal Year 2010 PREP funds by the grant’s regular application deadline; however, the state applied for both Fiscal Year 2010 and 2011 PREP funds during the 2011 grant application cycle and received Fiscal Year 2010 funds retroactively.
  • The Hawaii State Department of Health received approximately $250,000 in federal PREP funds for Fiscal Year 2010.
  • The department will issue a Request for Proposal for available funds. At the time of publication, sub-grantees had not yet been determined.
 
The Hawaii State Department of Health will partner with the County of Hawaii’s Prosecuting Attorney to administer the state’s PREP grant program. Funding will be made available to local public and private entities to provide community-based programming to youth in Hawaii County (Hawaii Island). Programming will target young people ages 15–19, including students in grades nine through 12, Native Hawaiian and Filipino youth, youth in foster care, youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, or queer, and pregnant and parenting teens.[24]
 
Local entities will provide programming using Teen Outreach Program (TOP), an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.”[25] The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health.[26] It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be administered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. The program is proven effective in preventing teen pregnancy and increasing academic success among participants. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.[27]
 
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
  • There are no PREIS grantees in Hawaii.
 
 
 
Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010–2014. ACF administers the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
  • Hawaii chose not to apply for Title V abstinence-only funds for Fiscal Year 2010.
 
 
 
Hawaii TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010
Grantee
Award
Fiscal Years
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI)
TPPI Tier 1: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs
Hawaii Youth Services Network
$999,999
2010–2014
TOTAL
$999,999
 
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
University of Hawaii
$969,936
2010–2014
TOTAL
$969,936
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP)
PREP State-Grant Program
Hawaii State Department of Health (federal grant)
$250,000
2010
TOTAL
$250,000
 
 
GRAND TOTAL
$2,219,935
2010
 
 
 
Comprehensive Approaches to Sexuality Education
SIECUS has identified some examples of model programs, policies, and best practices being implemented in Hawaii public schools that provide a more comprehensive approach to sex education for young people.[28]
 
Comprehensive Sex Education Programs in Public Schools
HawaiiYouth Services Network Adaptation of Making Proud Choices
In 2007, the Hawaii Youth Services Network (HYSN), a coalition of more than 50 youth-serving organizations in Hawaii, implemented science-based, sex education programs in Hawaii public and charter schools to address the high rates of unintended pregnancy and teen birth among Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) youth in the state.[29] HYSN worked with curriculum specialists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Hawaii Department of Health, and local partners to adapt Making Proud Choices! for use with A/PI young people.[30] The program was implemented in “20 public school classrooms” and two charter schools with middle and high school students.[31]
As a result of HYSN’s work, more than 900 middle school and high school students received programming.[32] The organization is currently working to expand these efforts through its “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific,” which aims to serve 1,890 youth annually over the next five years.
 
Recent efforts by HYSN have also focused on working with the Hawaii Department of Education and local schools to implement Making Proud Choices! in additional middle schools and high schools, as well as training teachers to administer the curriculum. The organization is currently partnering with the department of education through its “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership of the Pacific” to provide training and technical support to school personnel. (Please see the TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based programs section for more information on the HYSN and Making Proud Choices!.)
 
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Hawaii public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles. Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information.  Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
 
 
 
Points of Contact
 
Adolescent Health Contact[33]
Noella Kong
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Hawaii Department of Health
Children and Youth Wellness
741-A Sunset Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96816
Phone: (808) 733-4056
 
PREP State-Grant Coordinator
Noella Kong
Adolescent Health Coordinator
Hawaii Department of Health
Children and Youth Wellness
741-A Sunset Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96816
Phone: (808) 733-4056
 
 
 
Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
ACLU of Hawaii
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 522-5900
www.acluhawaii.org
 
Maui AIDS Foundation
Wailuku, HI
Phone: (808) 242-4900
 
Hawaii Island HIV/AIDS Foundation
Kailua-Kona, HI
Phone: (808) 313-8177
 
Planned Parenthood of Hawaii
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 589-1156
www.plannedparenthood.org/hawaii
 
Life Foundation
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 521-2437
 
 
 
 
Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
Hawaii Christian Coalition
Pearl City, HI
Phone: (808) 842-0707 
 
Hawaii Right to Life
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 585-8207
www.hrtl.org
 
Hawaii Family Forum
Kaneohe, HI
Phone: (808) 203-6704
 
 
 
 
Media Outlets
 
Newspapers in Hawaii[34]
Honolulu Advertiser
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 525-8090
The Maui News
Wailuku, HI
Phone: (808) 244-3981
Civil Beat
Honolulu, HI
Phone: (808) 737-2300
www.civilbeat.com
 
 
Political Blogs in Hawaii
Hawaii Blog
Hawaii Political Info
Progressive Democrats of Hawaii
 
 
 
 
 
 

[1]This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th.  The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
[6]Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>.  
[7]“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
[8]“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
[9]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, (Washington, DC: Guttmacher Institute, January 2010), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf>, Table 3.1.
[10]Ibid., Table 3.2.
[11]U.S.Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, Table 3.3.
[12]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
[13]Ibid.
[14]Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[15]“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
[16]Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
[17]“About Us,” Hawaii Youth Services Network, accessed 1 June 2011, <http://hysn.org/?page_id=2>.
[18]“Making Proud Choices!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 15 April 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=128>.
[19]Ibid.
[20]“Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Emerging Answers (Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2007), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/ea2007/desc/draw_pr.pdf>; see also “Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/draw_the_line_respect_the_line.html>.
[21]Information provided by Judith Clark, executive director of the Hawaii Youth Services Network, 14 June 2011.
[22]“Pono Choices Curriculum Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What is the “Pono Choices” Curriculum?” University of Hawaii Center on Disability Studies, accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.cds.hawaii.edu/ponochoices/faq/>.
[23]“Pono Choices Curriculum Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What is the “Pono Choices” Curriculum?” University of Hawaii Center on Disability Studies, accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.cds.hawaii.edu/ponochoices/faq/>.
[24]Information provided by Noella Kong, adolescent health coordinator for the Hawaii State Department of Health, 21 September 2011.
[25]Saras Chung and Annie Philipps, Promoting Mental Health and Well-being in Adolescents: Recommendations for Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program, (Eureka, MO: Wyman Teen Outreach Program, 2010), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.wymantop.org/pdfs/TOP_Positive_Well-Being.pdf>, 3.
[26]Ibid, 9.
[27]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Teen Outreach Program,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/teen_outreach_program.html>.
[28]This is by no means a complete list of all comprehensive programming and policies related to sexuality education, but rather some examples of best practices and model programs that SIECUS identified.
[29]“Hawaii Youth Services Network–Program Adaptation in Action,” Adolescent Reproductive Health: Hawaii Success Stories, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last modified 17 May 2010, accessed 27 May 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/Reproductivehealth/AdolescentReproHealth/Hawaii.htm>.
[30]Ibid.
[31]Ibid.
[32]Ibid.
[33]The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health. 
[34]This section is a list of major newspapers in the state and is by no means exhaustive of local print outlets.
 
National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education