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Florida State Profile Fiscal Year 2010

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Sexuality Education Law and Policy | Recent Legislation | Youth Sexual Health Data | Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative | Personal Responsibility Education Program | Title V Abstinence-Only Program | TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010 | Comprehensive Approaches to Sex Education | Points of Contact | Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality EducationOrganizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education | Media Outlets | References

 
Florida
In Fiscal Year 2010[1], the state of Florida received:
  • Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative funds totaling $3,565,351
  • Personal Responsibility Education Program funds totaling $2,795,687[2]
  • Title V State Abstinence Education Program funds totaling $2,601,681
 
In Fiscal Year 2010, local entities in Florida received:
  • Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative funds totaling $4,766,323

 

Sexuality Education Law and Policy
Florida Statute 1003.42 states that public schools must teach comprehensive health education that includes giving students “an awareness of the benefits of sexual abstinence as the expected standard and the consequences of teenage pregnancy.”[3] Previous Florida law required students to complete one-half credit in “Life Management Skills” in order to graduate high school.  These courses were required to include instruction on the prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), family life, the benefits of sexual abstinence, and the consequences of teen pregnancy. 
 
Effective for the 2007–2008 school year, students entering high school were no longer required to receive health education as a graduation requirement.  School districts now have the option of requiring students to take one-half credit in Physical Education and one-half credit in Personal Fitness, or to complete a one credit course titled, “Health Opportunities through Physical Education” (HOPE), which integrates personal fitness and life management skills.  The course includes fitness and health concepts as well as instruction on disease prevention, including HIV/AIDS and other STDs.  State policy still reads that “course descriptions for comprehensive health education shall not interfere with the local determination of appropriate curriculum which reflects local values and concerns.”[4]
 
School boards may decide to allow additional instruction regarding HIV/AIDS. Such instruction may include information about “means used to control the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.”[5]
 
All instruction and course material must:[6]
 
  • teach abstinence from sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for all school-age students while teaching the benefits of monogamous heterosexual marriage;
  • emphasize that abstinence from sexual activity is a certain way to avoid out-of-wedlock pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other associated health problems;
  • teach that each student has the power to control personal behavior and encourage students to base actions on reasoning, self-esteem, and respect for others; and
  • provide instruction and material that is appropriate for the grade and age of the student.
 
Florida standards, titled Sunshine State Standards for Health and Physical Fitness, do not mention instruction in HIV/AIDS, STDs, or sexuality education.
 
As with the previously required course, parents may submit a written request to the school principal to exempt their child from HIV/AIDS instruction within HOPE or any other sexuality education and/or STD/HIV education classes.  This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.
 
 
 
 
Recent Legislation
 
Bill to Revise Instruction Requirements for Sex Education
Senate Bill 108, introduced in March 2011, would have removed the requirement that instruction on AIDS, STDs, or human sexuality “teach abstinence from sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for all school-age students while teaching the benefits of monogamous heterosexual marriage.” The bill was referred to the Senate Education Pre K–12; Health Regulation; and Children, Family, and Elder Affairs committees. Consideration of the bill was indefinitely postponed and later withdrawn. The bill subsequently died in committee.
 
Bill to Require Human Sexuality Education in High School
House Bill 1181, introduced in March 2011, would have required all students to take a week-long course in human sexuality education during each year of high school. Instruction would have been required to be medically accurate and focus on abstinence, contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, and teen pregnancy.  Students could have been exempt from the course if they provided a written request from a parent or guardian. The bill was referred to the K-20 Innovation Subcommittee and died in committee. The corresponding legislation in the Senate (SB 1648) was referred to the Education Pre-K–12 Committee, but was withdrawn from consideration in April 2011.
 
 
 
Youth Sexual Health Data
SIECUS has compiled the following data to provide an overview of adolescent sexual health in Florida. The data collected represents the most current information available.
 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Data[7]
  • In 2009, 48% of female high school students and 53% of male high school students in Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 4% of female high school students and 12% of male high school students in Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 11% of female high school students and 21% of male high school students in Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 37% of female high school students and 37% of male high school students in Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 60% of females and 70% of males in Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 20% of females and 13% of males in Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 15% of females and 24% of males in Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
  • In 2009, 88% of high school students in Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Broward County, Florida
  • In 2009, 47% of female high school students and 58% of male high school students in Broward County, Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
 
  • In 2009, 5% of female high school students and 14% of male high school students in Broward County, Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 15% of female high school students and 26% of male high school students in Broward County, Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 37% of female high school students and 40% of male high school students in Broward County, Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 67% of females and 74% of males in Broward County, Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 13% of females and 7% of males in Broward County, Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 22% of females and 25% of males in Broward County, Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 87% of high school students in Broward County, Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Duval County, Florida
  • In 2009, 51% of female high school students and 58% of male high school students in Duval County, Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 5% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students in Duval County, Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 13% of female high school students and 23% of male high school students in Duval County, Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 38% of female high school students and 37% of male high school students in Duval County, Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 52% of females and 66% of males in Duval County, Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 21% of females and 10% of males in Duval County, Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 17% of females and 27% of males in Duval County, Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 84% of high school students in Duval County, Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Miami-Dade County, Florida
  • In 2009, 47% of female high school students and 60% of male high school students in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 5% of female high school students and 15% of male high school students in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 10% of female high school students and 25% of male high school students in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 36% of female high school students and 40% of male high school students in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 56% of females and 72% of males in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 13% of females and 5% of males in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 11% of females and 26% of males in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 85% of high school students in Miami-Dade County, Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Orange County, Florida
  • In 2009, 44% of female high school students and 59% of male high school students in Orange County, Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 3% of female high school students and 11% of male high school students in Orange County, Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 12% of female high school students and 23% of male high school students in Orange County, Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 32% of female high school students and 40% of male high school students in Orange County, Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 61% of females and 72% of males in Orange County, Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 12% of females and 8% of males in Orange County, Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 17% of females and 26% of males in Orange County, Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 87% of high school students in Orange County, Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Palm Beach County, Florida
  • In 2009, 51% of female high school students and 58% of male high school students in Palm Beach County, Florida reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 46% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 3% of female high school students and 13% of male high school students in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 3% of female high school students and 8% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 14% of female high school students and 23% of male high school students in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 11% of female high school students and 16% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 38% of female high school students and 38% of male high school students in Palm Beach County, Florida reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 33% of male high school students nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 64% of females and 73% of males in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 54% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 18% of females and 14% of males in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 23% of females and 16% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 17% of females and 25% of males in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 17% of females and 26% of males nationwide.
 
  • In 2009, 86% of high school students in Palm Beach County, Florida reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 87% of high school students nationwide.
 
Teen Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion
  • Florida’s teen birth rate currently ranks 22nd in the United States, with a rate of 42.8 births per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 41.5 births per 1,000.[8] In 2008, there were a total of 18,602 live births reported to young women ages 15–19 in Florida.[9]    
     
  • In 2005, Florida’s teen pregnancy rate ranks 12th in the United States, with a rate of 77 pregnancies per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 70 pregnancies per 1,000.[10]  There were a total of 44,040 pregnancies among young women ages 15–19 reported in Florida.[11]
     
  • In 2005, Florida’s teen abortion rate ranked 10th in the United States with a rate of 24 abortions per 1,000 young women ages 15–19 compared to the national rate of 19 abortions per 1,000.[12]
 
HIV and AIDS[13]
  • Florida’s HIV infection rate ranks 1st in the United States, with a rate of 42.7 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 19.5 cases per 100,000.[14]
     
  • Floridaranks 1st in cases of HIV infection diagnosed in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 7,825 new cases of HIV infection diagnosed in Florida.[15]
     
  • Florida’s HIV infection rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 1st in the United States, with a rate of 16.3 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 15.5 cases per 100,000.[16]
 
  • Floridaranks 2nd in number of reported AIDS cases in the United States among all age groups. In 2008, there were a total of 4,766 new AIDS cases reported in Florida.[17]
     
  • Florida’s AIDS rate ranks 3rd in the United States, with a rate of 26 cases per 100,000 individuals compared to the national rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000.[18]
     
  • Florida’s AIDS rate among young people ages 13–19 ranks 3rd in the United States, with a rate of 4.2 cases per 100,000 young people compared to the national rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000.[19]
 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Floridaranks 19th in reported cases of Chlamydia among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 20.63 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 19.51 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 24,012 cases of Chlamydia reported among young people ages 15–19 in Florida.[20] 
     
  • Floridaranks14th in reported cases of gonorrhea among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 5.82 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 4.52 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 6,775 cases of gonorrhea reported among young people ages 15–19 in Florida.[21] 
     
  • Floridaranks 8th in reported cases of primary and secondary syphilis among young people ages 15–19 in the United States, with an infection rate of 0.07 cases per 1,000 compared to the national rate of 0.04 cases per 1,000.  In 2008, there were a total of 81 cases of syphilis reported among young people ages 15–19 in Florida.[22]
 
 
 
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative
The President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI) funds medically accurate and age-appropriate programs to reduce teen pregnancy. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) administers the grant program, which totaled $110 million in discretionary funding for Fiscal Year 2010. TPPI consists of two funding tiers that provide grants to local public and private entities, Tier 1 totals $75 million and provides funding for the replication of evidence-based programs proven to prevent unintended teen pregnancy and address underlying behavioral risk factors. Tier 2 totals $25 million and provides funding to develop and test additional models and innovative strategies. A portion of the Tier 2 funds, $15.2 million, was allocated for research and demonstration grants to test innovative approaches, while the remaining funding, $9.8 million, was allocated for grants to support communitywide initiatives. TPPI also dedicates $4.5 million in funding to conduct evaluations of individual programs.
 
TPPI Tier 1: Evidence-Based Programs
The TPPI Tier 1 grant program supports the replication of evidence-based programs proven effective through rigorous evaluation to prevent unintended teen pregnancy, underlying behavioral risk factors, or other associated risk factors.
  • The Department of Health and local organizations in Florida received $7,440,141 in TPPI Tier 1 funding for Fiscal Year 2010.
  • There are six TPPI Tier 1 grantees in Florida: Florida Department of Health; JWB Children’s Services Council of Pinellas County; OIC of Broward County; Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc.; Switchboard of Miami; and Trinity Church, Inc.
 
Florida Department of Health, $3,565,351 (2010–2014)
The Florida Department of Health serves as the statewide public health agency, providing public health services and programs to Florida residents through a network of 67 county health departments, located throughout the state, and a central office in Tallahassee. The agency’s Division of Family Health Services, Bureau of Community Health administers the TPPI Tier 1 grant through its Office of Positive Youth Development. Established in June 2009, the office serves to “enhance the skills and improve the health status of Florida’s adolescents and young adults through opportunities and programs, [developed in collaboration with families, communities, schools, and local public and private entities], for youth to build developmental assets.”[23] Moreover, the office supports a network of community-based organizations in providing positive youth development opportunities for young people and programming to promote healthy behaviors and reduce risk behaviors, such as “sexual activity, substance abuse, suicide and behaviors that increase risk of unintentional injury and chronic disease.”[24] The state adolescent health coordinator directs the office.
 
With its Tier 1 funds the agency implements Teen Outreach Program (TOP) in 26 non-metropolitan counties, partnering with the local health department and school district in each county to administer the program. Programming will serve ninth grade students in school-based settings in an effort to reduce teen pregnancy, school dropout and suspension rates among participants. The program plans to reach 53,200 youth over the course of four years. The 26 counties served include: Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Calhoun, DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lake, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Okaloosa, Okeechobee, Pasco, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sewannee, Union, Volusia, and Washington. These counties on average have lower socio-economic levels and higher rates of teen pregnancy and birth than the majority of Florida counties. The multi-county initiative will seek to evaluate the implementation of TOP and its impact using an experimental, longitudinal design. The department of health has contracted with the University of South Florida to conduct the evaluation.[25]           
 
Teen Outreach Program (TOP) is an evidence-based youth development program that engages young people in experiential learning activities in order to “prepare for successful adulthood and avoid problem behaviors.”[26] The program is designed for youth ages 12–17 and focuses on reducing rates of school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy. TOP consists of a nine-month curriculum that addresses such topics as relationships, peer pressure, decision making, values clarification, goal-setting, adolescent development, and sexual health.[27] It also includes a 20-hour community service component that engages participants in activities to enhance knowledge and develop skills, including self-efficacy, communication, conflict-management, and self-regulation. TOP can be administered as an in-school, after-school, or community-based program. The program is proven effective in preventing teen pregnancy and increasing academic success among participants. An evaluation of the program published in Child Development found that young women, ages 15–19, who participated in TOP were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy during the program than participants in the control group.[28]
 
JWB Children’s Services Council of Pinellas County, $600,000 (2010–2014)
Located in Clearwater, Florida, the Juvenile Welfare Board Children’s Services Council of Pinellas County (JWB) was established in 1946 as Florida’s first Children’s Services Council (CSC). A CSC is “a countywide special taxing district created by ordinance to fund programs and services that improve the lives of children and their families” such as school readiness, prenatal care, and youth development.[29] In this role, JWB works to “support the healthy development of all children and their families in Pinellas County through advocacy, research, planning, training, communications, coordination of resources and funding.”[30]
 
With its Tier 1 funding, JWB provides positive youth development programming to youth ages 11–13 through its “Comprehensive Youth Supports” program. The federally funded program serves predominately African-American youth residing in a “high-need, high-risk urban area” of St. Petersburg, Florida, which has substantially higher rates of teen births and STDs than the state average. The overall goals of the program are to prevent teen pregnancy, improve work-related skills, and increase access to medical and dental care among participants. Through the “Comprehensive Youth Services” program JWB implements the Children’s Aid Society – Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program in a community-based, after school setting. The organization partners with the Pinellas County Health Department to administer programming, which is delivered at the YMCA of St. Petersburg Child Park community center. JWB plans for the program to reach 60 youth annually.[31]
 
The Children’s Aid Society – Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program (CAS – Carrera), is an evidence-based positive youth development program designed for underserved students in grades six through 12. The program consists of seven integrated units that can be administered in an after- school or in-school setting over the course of a year. These units include Education, Job Club, Family Life and Sexuality Education, Mental Health, Medical and Dental Services, Self Expression, and Lifetime Individual Sports.[32] The program uses a positive youth development approach to increase developmental competency and identity formation among participants in order to encourage youth to avoid early parenthood and risky sexual behavior. CAS – Carrera runs six days a week throughout the academic year and also includes a summer program component.[33] An evaluation of the program published in Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health found that at a three-year follow-up female participants were significantly less likely to report a pregnancy or report being sexually active than participants in the control group.[34]
 
OIC of Broward County, $998,500 (2010–2014)                                                                                              
OIC (Opportunities Industrialization Centers) of Broward County is a non-profit, community-based organization located in Fort Lauderdale.  OIC of Broward County is an affiliate of OIC of America, a national network of employment and training programs. The organization provides under-resourced and unemployed residents with employment opportunities and training in self-help skills. OICB operates under the principle, “lending a hand up as oppose to a (sic) giving a hand out,” assisting clients to do for themselves and “become productive members of society.”[35]
 
OIC of Broward County previously partnered with Trinity Church to administer the organization’s abstinence-only-until-marriage program which was funded by the now-defunct federal Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) program. The program served youth ages 12–18 at community-based organizations, charter schools, churches, and community events in Miami-Dade and Broward counties using two abstinence-only-until-marriage curricula: Families United to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (FUPTP) and Choosing the Best Plus.   OIC of Broward County served more than 1,500 youth through the program.
 
The organization also operates its own “Healthy Relationship/Marriage Project,” which receives funding from the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. The project “is designed to...help young people understand that the sequencing of major life events – getting an education, getting married, then having children – greatly increases the chances for a positive future.”[36]Through the program, OIC of Broward County has delivered community presentations to more than 500 youth, administered curricular programming to more than 250 youth, and conducted seminars with more than 200 parents.[37]
 
With its TPPI Tier 1 funding, OIC of Broward County partners with local schools and community-based organizations to administer evidence-based programs to middle and high school students, as well as youth in foster care. The overall goal of the program is to expand teen pregnancy-prevention education throughout Broward County” and “reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among teens.”[38] OIC of Broward County sub-contracts with four local entities to implement programming: the FLITE (Fort Lauderdale Independence & Education) Center, Lauderdale Lakes Charter Academy, Lauderhill Middle School/Lauderhill Community YMCA Center, and Memorial Healthcare System. Together these organizations administer programming to at-risk youth at four Broward County public middle schools, two public high schools, one combined middle school and high school, and seven community-based organizations. Programming serves predominately African-American youth. OIC of Broward County and its partners use Becoming A Responsible Teen (BART) with middle school students and Reducing the Risk with high school students. The program plans to reach approximately 1,400 youth annually.[39]
 
Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) is an evidence-based HIV/AIDS-prevention curriculum designed for African-American youth ages 14–18.  BART teaches students to reduce sexual risk-taking by promoting safer sex practices while also teaching that abstinence is the most effective way to prevent HIV and unintended pregnancy. The curriculum combines education with behavioral skills training on assertion, refusal, self-management, problem solving, risk recognition, and correct condom use.[40]  BART includes interactive activities, group discussions, and role-plays developed by teens. It is designed for implementation in community-based settings and with single-sex groups. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology found that it increased participant knowledge of HIV and AIDS and increased participants’ ability to manage the pressure to engage in unprotected sex as well as to provide information to their peers regarding safe sexual practices.  The program was also found to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse, reduce the frequency of sex and the incidence of unprotected sex, and increase condom use (among males). Participants also stopped engaging in unprotected anal sex.[41]
 
Reducing the Risk: Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy, STD and HIVis an evidence-based, sexuality education curriculum designed for classroom use with students in the ninth and tenth grades. It is appropriate for use with multi-ethnic populations.[42]  Reducing the Risk aims to reduce high-risk behaviors among participants and emphasizes strategies for abstaining from sex or practicing safer sex. The 16-lesson curriculum addresses both abstinence and contraception use and includes experiential activities that teach students to develop refusal, negotiation, and communication skills. An evaluation of the program published in Family Planning Perspectives found that it increased parent-child communication, especially among Latino youth, delayed the initiation of sexual intercourse, and reduced incidence of unprotected sex among lower-risk youth who participated in the program.[43]
 
Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc., $477,790 (2010–2014)                                               
Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc. (PPGO) is an affiliate of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, a leading national provider of and advocate for sexual and reproductive health care. The Orlando affiliate provides reproductive health services and education to four counties within central Florida, including Brevard, Orange, Osceola, and Seminole.
 
PPGO uses its TPPI funds to implement the “Teens RISE! (Really Important Sex Education) Project.” The program focuses on replicating evidence-based interventions in order to reduce sexual risk behaviors, prevent unintended pregnancies, and reduce the occurrence/re-occurrence of STDs among program participants. Through “Teen RISE!,” PPGO implements two separate interventions, one uses SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering) to serve young women ages 14–18 in a community-based setting, and the otheruses the Safer Sex intervention to provide one-on-one instruction to high-risk youth ages 15–19 in a clinical setting. PPGO plans to reach approximately 200 youth annually through the programs.[44]
 
PPGO uses SiHLE with young African-American women ages 14–18 who reside in the Ivey Lane and Pine Hills communities, two areas with the highest rates of teen birth in Orange County. The program aims to provide culturally relevant programming to sexually active young women in order to reduce their risk of HIV and unintended pregnancy. PPGO partners with the Orange County Health Department to implement SiHLE in a church and community-based setting.[45]
 
SiHLE is an evidence-based HIV/STD-prevention program designed for African-American females ages 14–18 who are sexually active and at high risk for HIV. It is a peer-led, social skills training intervention based on social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power.[46] The program consists of four, four-hour sessions that are administered on consecutive Saturdays in a community-based setting. Sessions are led by an African-American female adult and two peer-facilitators, ages 18–21. The sessions are designed to reinforce ethnic and gender pride and address HIV-prevention strategies, the transmission of STDs, communication and negotiation skills, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, healthy relationships, and personal empowerment. The program incorporates group discussion, lectures, games, and role-playing. Participants also complete homework assignments that provide opportunity for reflection and skills practice. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that, at six-month follow-up, program participants were significantly less likely to report being pregnant and significantly more likely to report having used condoms consistently in the previous six months than participants in the control group. In addition, at a twelve-month follow-up, participants were significantly more likely to report consistent condom use in the previous 30 days and having used a condom during last sexual intercourse than participants in the control group.[47]
 
The Safer Sex intervention provides young women ages 15–19, who are seeking or receiving services from PPGO, with access to information on preventing STDs and other clinic resources. The program is designed to engage young, sexually active women from Orange County in one-on-one, face-to-face education sessions offered in a non-judgmental and teen-friendly environment. PPGO administers Safer Sex at both of its clinic locations. The Orange County Healthy Start Coalition partners with PPGO to provide referrals for the program.
 
Safer Sex is a clinic-based intervention designed for high-risk, female adolescents. The intervention is delivered to participants in a one-on-one setting and seeks to reduce their incidence of STD infection and improve their efficacy of condom use. The intervention is administered by a female health educator and begins with the viewing of a brief video clip that uses celebrities to dramatize buying condoms as well as negotiating condom use. The video is followed by a 30-minute discussion with the health educator, which is tailored to meet the interests and risk level of the individual participant. The discussion addresses the consequences of having unprotected sex, methods for preventing unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV, secondary abstinence, and condom use skills. Participants also conduct a self-assessment to evaluate their sexual risk and are provided with written information about safer sex and contraception use. In addition, the intervention includes one-, three-, and six-month booster sessions at which time participants are invited back to the clinic for follow-up. An evaluation of the program published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine found, at a six-month follow-up, that the intervention reduced the incidence of multiple sexual partners among participants.[48]
 
Switchboard of Miami, $800,000 (2010–2014)                                                                            
Switchboard of Miami is a private, non-profit organization that provides telephone crisis counseling, suicide prevention, information, and referral services to the Miami-Dade County community. Its mission is to “[connect] all people in need with community resources, [provide] counseling and [empower] individuals 24 x 7 with just one call.”[49] Switchboard’s prevention and clinical services department also provides free school- and community-based education and prevention programs to youth. Programming is designed for youth at risk of “alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse, violence, early pregnancy, domestic violence, and other high-risk behaviors.”[50]
 
The organization previously received federal abstinence-only-until-marriage funding through the no w-defunct Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) and Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) grant programs. With the funding, Switchboard administered “Project REAL (Reinforcing Education through Abstinence and Leadership)” and “Project STRENGTH.”  Both programs used the Choosing the Best curricula, one of the more popular abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in the country.
 
With its TPPI funding, Switchboard operates “Project WISE (Wisdom Independence Support Education),” which serves predominantly African-American and Latino high-risk, urban youth. The project aims to “enhance protective factors and positive health behaviors related to the prevention of HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy.”[51] The organization noted in its application for federal funding, “The teen time bomb of pre-marital sex is spreading STDs, HIV, teen pregnancy and its associated problems among our County’s (sic) youth.”[52] Through the project, Switchboard of Miami, Inc. administers All4You! to youth at two alternative high schools, one low-performing high school, and through an after school/summer program serving Haitian youth. The targeted intervention sites include Corporate Academy North Alternative School, Corporate Academy South Alternative School, Homestead Senior High School, and GALATA Social Services, Inc. The project plans to reach approximately 800 youth annually.
 
All4You! is an evidence-based sexuality education program designed for students ages 14–18 attending alternative high schools. It is adapted from two existing evidence-based programs, Be Proud! Be Responsible! and Safer Choices. The program, which includes both classroom instruction and a service learning component, aims to reduce the frequency of unprotected sex among participants The 14-session classroom curriculum consists of nine lessons, which address STDs, including HIV, and pregnancy prevention, the risk of STD transmission and unintended pregnancy, negotiation skills, and condom-use skills, among other topics. All4You! includes interactive activities such as role-playing, a condom demonstration, group discussion, and games. The service learning component engages participants in volunteer activities. An evaluation of the program published in AIDS Education and Prevention compared the behavior of participants to that of peers in a control group six months after the intervention. Program participants reported a significantly lower frequency of having sex without a condom in the past three months, were significantly more likely to report having used a condom at last sex, and reported a significantly lower frequency of sexual intercourse in the previous three months than participants in the control group.[53]
 
Trinity Church, Inc., $998,500 (2010–2014)
Trinity Church, Inc. is a church and social services ministry located in Miami Gardens. Included in its statement of “fundamental truths,” the church states: “We believe the BIBLE, as originally given, to be without error, the fully inspired and infallible WORD of GOD and the supreme and final authority in all matters of faith and conduct.”[54] Trinity describes its work as “[assisting] in the transformation of individuals and families in our community.”[55] Among its services, the church provides medical care, job training, assistance with home ownership, and parenting classes. Trinity Church’s senior pastors are also the founders of Peacemakers, an outreach ministry serving inner cities.  Both Trinity Church and Peacemakers receive federal, state, and local government funding to provide services to low-income populations in Miami-Dade County.[56]
 
Trinity previously received federal abstinence-only-until-marriage funding through the now-defunct Community Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) grant program. Between Fiscal Years 2007 and 2009 the organization received $1.7 million in CBAE funds.  Trinity partnered with OIC of Broward County to provide abstinence-only-until-marriage programming. (Please see the information above on OIC of Broward County for more information on the organization’s CBAE program.)  Trinity also received Healthy Marriage Initiative funding from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and operated a five-year grant through the initiative totaling $550,000 annually for Fiscal Years 2006–2010.
 
With its TPPI funding, Trinity Church partners with local organizations to provide programming to “primarily African-American and Latino youth living in poverty.”[57] The program targets middle and high school students ages 12–19 living in Miami-Dade County, with the goal of reducing teen pregnancy and STD infection among youth. The church’s Peacemakers ministry serves as the lead agency for the grant and sub-contracts funding to three partner organizations: Fit Kids of America, Inc., Holy Cross Christian Day School, and Teen Up-Ward Bound. The organizations implement Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) and Reducing the Risk in both school- and community-based settings. (Please see the information above on OIC of Broward County for more information on BART and Reducing the Risk.) Programming is administered to middle school students at Holy Cross Christian Day School and Glades Middle School and to high school students at North Miami Senior High School and Northwestern High School. Trinity and its partners also administer programming to other targeted youth.[58] The TPPI program plans to reach approximately 1,400 youth annually.
 
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program supports research and demonstration programs in order to develop, replicate, refine, and test additional models and innovative strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy.
  • There is one TPPI Tier 2 grantee in Florida, Live the Life Ministries, Inc., which received $891,533 in Fiscal Year 2010.
 
Live the Life Ministries, Inc., $891,533 (2010–2014)
Live the Life Ministries, Inc. is a Christian organization that operates offices in Tallahassee and Lakeland, Florida and provides faith-based programming and marriage education to young people of the Florida Big Bend region. Its “mission is to strengthen marriages and families by providing classes and events to help build the foundation for a healthy marriage and provide resolutions to relationship conflicts.”[59] Live the Life’s faith-based programs include, among others, “CRosSWILD,” a student ministry which aims to “ignite this generation to live boldly and wild for the cross of Jesus Christ;” and “Champions” and “Championettes,” dual, single-sex leadership programs for high school students that teach young men “the ‘10 Aspects of Being a Godly Man’” and show young women “the value and preciousness of being a Godly Woman.”[60] The organization also offers programs for married couples that use biblical teachings to strengthen marriages as well as a spring break program for youth that provides lessons on selecting a marriage partner.
 
Live the Life Ministries previously received abstinence-only-until-marriage funding through the now-defunct federal Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) program. Between Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009, the organization received nearly $1.2 million in CBAE funds. Live the Life also receives federal funding through the Healthy Marriage Initiative, which supports its marriage skills and marriage preparation courses.
 
With its Tier 2 grant, Live the Life implements “The WAIT Project,” which trains 80 teachers to use WAIT (Why Am I Tempted?) Training in schools. WAIT Training is an abstinence-only-until-marriage curriculum that uses fear- and shame-based tactics to promote abstinence as the only appropriate behavior outside of marriage. SIECUS reviewed the most recent edition of WAIT Training and found that, similar to previous editions, it includes little medical or biological information about puberty and reproduction. Instead, it contains information and statistics promoting the benefits of marriage, activities and skill-building exercises for developing healthy relationships, and information on STDs, including HIV. It also contains messages promoting biased views of gender, sexual orientation, and family structure. For example, WAIT Training explains, “When it comes to sex, men are like microwaves and women are like crockpots…. [M]en respond sexually by what they see and women respond sexually by what they hear and how they feel about it.”[61]
 
“The WAIT Project” emphasizes that young people “should postpone sexual activity, and that practicing abstinence is the only way to eliminate the risk for pregnancy and STDs, including HIV.”[62] At its core, however, the program aims to equip young people for marriage and ‘successful’ adulthood. As stated in its Tier 2 grant application:
 
“Modern teenagers lack what earlier generations took for granted: a normative sequence for the timing of sex, marriage, and parenthood…While young people aspire to successful futures and marriage, they are often unaware of the simple ‘success’ formula that can greatly help them achieve both. Namely, graduate from high school, don’t have sex until you are married, and don’t marry during the teen years. By doing so, young people greatly reduce their chances of poverty and divorce.”[63]
 
Through the project, Live the Life Ministries trains teachers throughout a 14-county service area to deliver classroom instruction to middle school and high school students. Live the Life plans for teachers to administer WAIT Training to students in single-sex classes. The organization directly partners with 15 schools: Columbia County High School, Fort White High School, Fort White Middle School, Jefferson County Middle/High School, Lakeland Christian School, Lake City Middle School, Liberty County Bristol Youth Academy, Madison Central Middle School, Madison High School, Riversprings Middle School, Taylor County Middle School, Taylor County High School, Richardson Middle School, Tolar Middle School, and Wakulla County High School.[64] Live the Life recently distributed “thank you” awards totaling $86,500 to superintendents of school districts that have participated in the WAIT Training program over the past three years.[65]
 
As part of “The WAIT Project,” Live the Life also offers an “Alternative Spring Break” vacation program for youth, Father of the Year Essay Contest, and Parent Talk programs.
 
TPPI Tier 2: Communitywide Initiatives
The TPPI Tier 2 grant program also supports communitywide initiatives to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and births in communities with the highest rates. The program awards grants to national organizations as well as state- and community-based organizations. Funded national partners provide training and technical assistance to local grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administer the grant program in partnership with OAH.
  • There are no TPPI Tier 2 Communitywide Initiatives grantees in Florida.
 
 
 
Personal Responsibility Education Program
The Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) totals $75 million per year for Fiscal Years 2010−2014 and is the first-ever dedicated funding stream for more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers the grant. PREP includes a $55 million state-grant program, $10 million to fund local entities through the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program, $3.5 million for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and $6.5 million for evaluation, training, and technical assistance. Details on the state-grant program and PREIS are included below. At the time of publication, the funding for tribes and tribal organizations had not yet been awarded.
 
PREP State-Grant Program
The PREP state-grant program supports evidence-based programs that provide young people with medically accurate and age-appropriate information for the prevention of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The grant program totals $55 million per year and allocates funding to individual states. The grant does not require states to provide matching funds. Funded programs must discuss abstinence and contraception, and place substantial emphasis on both. Programs must also address at least three of the following adulthood preparation subjects: healthy relationships, positive adolescent development, financial literacy, parent-child communication skills, education and employment skills, and healthy life skills.
  • The Florida Department of Health received $2,795,687 in federal PREP funds for Fiscal Year 2010. However, the state later chose to return the funding as part of the legislature’s decision to refuse all funding allocated through the federal health care reform law, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Florida is currently the lead plaintiff in a legal case against the federal government that challenges the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act.
 
Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS)
The PREIS Program supports research and demonstration programs to develop, replicate, refine, and test innovative models for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. ACF administers the grant program in collaboration with OAH and provides a total of $10 million in funding directly to local public and private entities.
  • There are no PREIS grantees in Florida.
 
 
 
Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program
The Title V State Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only Program) allocates $50 million per year to states for Fiscal Years 2010−2014. ACF administers the grant program. The Title V Abstinence-Only Program requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups. All programs funded by the Title V Abstinence-Only Program must promote abstinence from sexual activity as their exclusive purpose and may provide mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision toward this end. Programs must be medically accurate and age-appropriate and must ensure abstinence is an expected outcome.
  • The Florida Department of Health received $2,601,681 in federal Title V abstinence-only funding for Fiscal Year 2010.  While the legislature decided to refuse all funding allocated through the federal health care reform law, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the state decided to keep Title V abstinence-only funds, funded through the federal health care reform law, arguing that it was a pre-existing program.
  • The department chose to sub-grant the funds to 13 local public and private entities.
  • In Florida, sub-grantees contributed to the match through a combination of direct revenue and in-kind services.
 
The Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health administers the state’s Title V abstinence-only grant. The state grant program provides funding to local public and private entities to administer abstinence programming and “abstinence-promoting activities” to youth ages 12–19 in school- and community-based settings.  The program aims to “help prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, [STDs], and school drop-out occurrences” among adolescents “by promoting abstinence until marriage as the expected societal norm for youth.”[66] Sub-grantees are required to replicate one of four evidence-based programs approved by the department of health as well as to support positive youth development through promoting “positive community values” and encouraging healthy lifestyle choices among youth. Sub-grantees must also engage program participants in organized activities, such as community service, mentoring, educational training, cultural enrichment projects, recreational sports, or career counseling. Programs are also encouraged to engage parents and the local community. Individual programs must address the needs of the specific target population. In addition, each sub-grantee must serve at least 500 youth.[67]
 
The department of health approved four evidence-based programs for use under the state’s Title V abstinence-only grant program: Making a Difference!; Project AIM (Adult Identity Mentoring); Promoting Health Among Teens! (Abstinence-Only Intervention); and Teen Outreach Program (TOP).[68] However, none of the 13 funded sub-grantees chose to use TOP.  
 
Making a Difference! is an evidence-based pregnancy-, STD-, and HIV-prevention curriculum that emphasizes abstinence from sexual activity. Adapted from the evidence-based curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, Making a Difference! aims to increase participants’ knowledge about HIV/STD and pregnancy prevention as well as their confidence to negotiate sexual pressure and intention to abstain from sex. It is designed for use with African-American, Latino, and white adolescents ages 11–13 and can be implemented in school- or community-based settings.  The curriculumincludes interactive activities, small group discussions, and skill-building exercises, including role-plays, aimed to increase comfort and efficacy with practicing abstinence.  An evaluation of the curriculum published in the Journal of American Medical Association found, at a three-month follow-up, that participants in the program were less likely to report having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior than peers in the control group. Findings also show that the program helped to delay sexual initiation among program participants who were sexually inexperienced.[69]
 
Project AIM (Adult Identity Mentoring) is an evidence-based youth development program. The program is based on the “Theory of Possible Selves,” which proposes that an individual’s motivation is determined by the ability to imagine his future self. Those that are capable of imagining both possible positive and negative futures are therefore more inclined to work toward their life goals.[70] Project AIM seeks to help adolescents identify their future goals and consider how engaging in risky behavior may negatively impact their ability to achieve those goals. The school-based intervention consists of 10 sessions which are divided into four units: 1) Legacy, Role Models, and Peers; 2) Self-Projection: Expanding Visions of Possible Selves; 3) Self-Expression through Work: Development of Possible Self; and 4) Skills of Fulfilling Positive Future Possible Selves.[71] The lessons consist of group discussions, interactive activities, and role-playing exercises to encourage youth to explore their personal interests, social surroundings, and their goals for their future adult life.[72] Project AIM is designed for use with African-American youth ages 11–14 and is also appropriate for use with Latino students. Although it is a school-based program, it can also be implemented in community-based settings. An evaluation of the program published in the Journal of Adolescent Medicine found, at a 19-week follow-up, that adolescents who participated in the program were significantly less likely to report having had sexual intercourse than participants in the control group; and, at a one-year follow-up, that male participants were significantly less likely to report having had sexual intercourse than participants in the control group.[73]
           
Promoting Health Among Teens! (Abstinence-Only Intervention) is an evidence-based, sexuality education curriculum developed to increase knowledge and awareness about STDs, including HIV, increase an understanding of how abstinence can prevent pregnancy and HIV/STDs, and build refusal and negotiation skills for practicing abstinence. Although originally intended for use with urban, African-American youth in small groups, the intervention can be adapted for use with larger groups and those in rural settings.[74] It is appropriate for use in both school- and community-based settings. The curriculum is designed as eight, one-hour modules that include group discussions, videos, role-playing, skill-building activities, games, and other experiential exercises.  Promoting Health Among Teens! aims for participants to abstain from vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse until a time later in life when they are ready to handle the potential consequences of having sex. Promoting Health Among Teens! does not discourage nor encourage condom use.[75] An evaluation of the program published in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found, at a 24-month follow-up, that participants who were sexually inexperienced at the time of the program were significantly less likely to have initiated sex than participants in the control group.[76]
 
 
Florida TPPI, PREP, and Title V Abstinence-Only Funding in FY 2010   
Grantee
Award
Fiscal Years
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative (TPPI)
TPPI Tier 1: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs
Florida Department of Health
$3,565,351
2010−2014
Sub-grantees:
 
 
Alachua County school district
$120,000
 
Baker County school district 
$120,000
 
Bay County school district 
$120,000
 
Bradford County school district 
$120,000
 
Calhoun County school district 
$120,000
 
DeSoto County school district 
$120,000
 
Hardee County school district
$120,000
 
Highlands County school district
$120,000
 
Holmes County school district
$120,000
 
Jackson County school district 
$60,000
 
Jefferson County school district 
$60,000
 
Lake County school district 
$120,000
 
Liberty County school district
$120,000
 
Madison County school district 
$120,000
 
Manatee County school district
$120,000
 
Marion County school district 
$60,000
 
Okaloosa County school district
$120,000
 
Okeechobee County school district 
$120,000
 
Pasco County school district
$120,000
 
Putnam County school district
$120,000
 
Santa Rosa County school district 
$60,000
 
Seminole County school district 
$60,000
 
Suwannee County school district
$60,000
 
Union County school district
$120,000
 
Volusia County school district
$120,000
 
Washington County school district
$120,000
 
     
JWB Children's Services Council of Pinellas County
$600,000
2010−2014
OIC of Broward County, Inc.
$998,500
2010−2014
Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc.
$477,790
2010−2014
Switchboard of Miami, Inc.
$800,000
2010−2014
Trinity Church, Inc.
$998,500
2010−2014
 
TOTAL
$7,440,141
TPPI Tier 2: Innovative Approaches
Live the Life Ministries, Inc.
$891,533
2010−2014
TOTAL
$891,533
 
Title V Abstinence Education Grant Program (Title V Abstinence-Only)
Florida Department of Health  (federal grant)
  $2,601,681
2010
Sub-grantees:
 
 
Abstinence Between Strong Teens International, Inc.
$150,000
2010
Bay County Health Department
$150,000
2010
Catholic Charities of Central Florida, Inc.
$150,000
2010
Escambia County Health Department
$150,000
2010
Family and Children Faith Coalition
$150,000
2010
Gee Resolutions
$150,000
2010
Heartland Rural Health Network
$150,000
2010
Marion County Health Department
$150,000
2010
Orlando Baptist Church, Inc. (dual grantee)
$150,000
2010
Orlando Baptist Church, Inc.
$150,000
2010
Partnership for a Drug Free Community of South Florida
$150,000
2010
Pregnancy Center of Pinellas County
$150,000
2010
Unity Family Community Center
$150,000
2010
TOTAL
$2,601,681
 
 
GRAND TOTAL
$10,933,355
2010
 
 
 
Comprehensive Approaches to Sexuality Education
SIECUS has identified some examples of model programs, policies, and best practices being implemented in Florida public schools that provide more comprehensive sex education to young people.[77]
 
Revised School District Policy
School DistrictsRevise Their Sex Education Policies
A growing number of Florida school districts are revising their health education policies to eliminate requirements that instruction teach abstinence- until-marriage and implement more comprehensive sex education programs, which include information on sexual health practices and the prevention of STDs, HIV, and unintended pregnancy along with information on condoms and contraception, among other topics.  Since 2007, at least six school districts have adopted more comprehensive sex education policies, including Brevard, Broward, Collier, Palm Beach, St. Lucie, and Volusia county school districts.
 
In 2007, the St. Lucie County School Board voted four–one to incorporate Get Real About AIDS, an evidence-based program, into the health education curriculum of all district middle and high schools.[78]  The board’s vote revised the district’s previous abstinence-only policy.  (See the section below on Comprehensive Sex Education in Public Schools for more information on the sex education program in St. Lucie.)
           
The Collier County School Board voted on November 19, 2009 to require that human sexuality instruction provided in district schools include information on sexual and reproductive health that is comprehensive, evidence based, medically accurate, age appropriate, and that teaches students about contraception and condoms in addition to abstinence.  The Board voted three–two to implement the new policy.[79]
 
Comprehensive Sex Education Programs in Public Schools
Broward County Public Schools
Broward County Public Schools (BCPS), receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Adolescent and School Health (CDC-DASH) to provide HIV-prevention education as an aspect of the district’s school health program.  The school district is one of four local agencies, also including Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Orange County Public Schools, and the School District of Palm Beach County, that receives DASH funding in part to advance HIV-prevention education in schools.  With a portion of its funding, BCPS provides HIV/AIDS- and STD- prevention education training to school staff.  The funding also supports work to enhance HIV curricula used in district schools and school district policies and procedures that govern HIV-prevention education administered to students.[80]
             
In order to provide HIV-prevention education training to school staff, BCPS developed a multi-media training strategy in 2006 that incorporated the use of online training, television broadcasts, training updates distributed on CD-ROM, and the district’s internal electronic network.  The strategy includes a five-week online course for teachers that addresses “data, policies, procedures, curriculum, prevention strategies, testing techniques, and related facts” regarding HIV and HIV-prevention education.  A total of 635 school staff received training.  Teachers can now also access model lesson plans among other resources through the district’s internal electronic network.[81]
 
Miami-Dade County Public Schools 
Miami-DadeCountyschool district, which is a CDC-DASH-funded, local agency, uses a portion of its funds to “strengthen HIV prevention education in grades K–12.”  To this end, the school district has worked to integrate HIV, STD, and unintended pregnancy prevention education into health education and other core subject areas in grades K–12.  The district’s HIV/AIDS Education Program is responsible for disseminating the district’s HIV/AIDS curriculum to schools.  The program also collaborates with other school district staff, the local health agency, local universities, community-based organizations, parents, and students to evaluate the HIV-, STD-, and unintended- pregnancy prevention activities administered in schools.[82]
 
School District of Manatee County
In April 2010, the school board of Manatee County approved a plan to offer a more comprehensive sex education curriculum in schools due to the high number of teen births among middle school girls in the district.[83] The school board revised the district’s health education guidelines to require schools to teach abstinence-based human sexuality instruction. The new guidelines require instruction to emphasize “sexual abstinence as the expected standard for students” while also providing “information concerning the risks and prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.”[84] In conjunction with the policy change, the district applied for, and was later awarded, a county grant totaling $313,500 to implement an intensive, abstinence-based teen pregnancy prevention program in four middle schools. The program, “It’s Your Choice,” uses the curriculum, Draw the Line/Respect the Line, to provide school-based instruction. The program also includes before-school and after-school programming, and both health and outreach services.[85] The school district implements “It’s Your Choice” in Horizons Academy, Lincoln, Johnson, and Harllee middle schools.[86]
 
Draw the Line/Respect the Line is an evidence-based sexuality education program designed for use with students in grades six through eight. The three-year program focuses on teaching youth to postpone sexual involvement while providing information about condoms and contraception. The school-based curriculum includes group discussion, small group activities, and role playing exercises to teach youth how to establish and maintain boundaries regarding sexual behavior. Draw the Line/Respect the Line consists of 19 sessions divided between grades six through eight. Lessons provided for sixth grades students address using refusal skills; lessons provided in the seventh grade focus on setting sexual limits, the consequences of unprotected sex, and managing sexual pressure; eighth grade students practice refusal and interpersonal skills and receive HIV/STD prevention education. The program also includes individual teacher consultations and parent engagement through homework activities. Although it is designed for use in the classroom, the program may also be administered in a community-based setting. An evaluation of the program published in the American Journal of Public Health found, at a one-, two-, and three-year follow-up, that male participants were significantly less likely to report ever having had sexual intercourse or having had sexual intercourse during the previous 12 months compared to participants in the control group.[87]
 
Orange County Public Schools
Through its cooperative agreement with CDC-DASH, Orange County Public Schools (OCPS) has developed an HIV/AIDS Prevention Program which aims to increase awareness among students in grades six through 12 of how to prevent HIV infection.  The program also provides professional development training to teachers and school staff that discusses model HIV curricula, as well as the district’s HIV policy and guidelines for human sexuality education.[88]  To address the needs of sexual minority students, OCPS has conducted focus groups with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) high school students to inform future programming.[89]
 
The School District of Palm Beach County
Among the program goals for its HIV/AIDS Prevention Program, the School District of Palm Beach County aims to “increase the number of youth in grades K–12 who receive HIV/AIDS prevention education.”  To this end, the school district has worked to develop “age appropriate HIV/AIDS prevention education curricula and activities for students.”  The district also designs and implements skills-based professional development trainings on HIV-prevention strategies for district administrators, educators, staff, and community partners.[90]
 
Pinellas County Schools
Beginning in 1980, the Pinellas County school district developed a Family Life Education Council which was tasked with creating a comprehensive family life education curriculum for middle school.  The curriculum was first piloted in schools in 1982 and included instruction on sex education, anatomy, “venereal disease,” and birth control.  Parents had to provide permission for their child to receive the sex education component of the curriculum.  Along with class instruction for students, the district provided parent education programs during the evenings. In addition, all teachers administering the curriculum were required to receive 30 hours of staff development to teach sex education. 
 
In 1984, the Family Life Education Council was replaced by the Family Life Education Committee, whose role it was to approve outside presenters, train speakers, and review supplemental audio-visual materials for instruction.  The committee still exists today and carries out the speaker approval process for the district.  Pinellas County teachers are still required to complete 30 hours of Family Life Education Training administered by the school district in order to teach such instruction.[91]
 
In Pinellas County schools, students receive age-appropriate human sexuality education beginning in fifth grade as an aspect of human growth and development instruction.  In middle school, grades six through eight, and high school, grades nine through 12, such instruction is provided in health class.  The district uses a combination of locally developed lessons and supplemental instructional materials, including videos, booklets, and approved outside speakers, to provide the information. In fifth grade, human growth and development education addresses topics related to human sexuality, including the “male and female reproductive systems,” “bodily changes that occur during puberty,” and “AIDS awareness.”  Middle school human sexuality education in sixth grade includes, among other topics, a discussion of the “emotional, social, and physical changes occurring during adolescence,” male and female reproductive systems, the stages of pregnancy and fetal development, the “causes, transmission, and prevention of AIDS,” and “the benefits of sexual abstinence.”  Eighth grade instruction covers definitions of masculinity and femininity, “respectful sexual behavior,” “sexual abstinence,” “consequences of teenage pregnancy,” and “sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS.”  Instruction also includes a one-day lesson on “the effectiveness of condoms to reduce the risk of some STDs.” 
 
Parents must provide permission for their child to participate in this lesson.  In high school, human sexuality instruction addresses “social dating behavior,” “sexual attitude awareness,” “decisions regarding sexuality,” “the benefits of sexual abstinence for unmarried teens,” and contraception, among other topics.[92]
 
St. Lucie County School District
In 2005, spurred by the high rate of teen birth and HIV/AIDS incidence in St. Lucie County, concerned community members and stakeholders partnered to improve the sex education provided in district schools.[93]  Members of the community along with middle and high school principals of St. Lucie public schools formed the HIV/AIDS Curriculum Task Force, which was tasked with recommending a sex education curriculum that was “scientifically proven to be effective in changing sexual behavior.” for inclusion in the district’s health courses.[94]
 
The taskforce reviewed six potential curricula that all fell under the criterion of programs identified by the CDC as effective and were listed on the Florida Board of Education’s recommended curriculum list.  After review, the taskforce selected two curricula for recommendation, which were then evaluated by health educators from each of the district’s high schools.  These educators unanimously selected Get Real About AIDS and made the recommendation to the district School Board for its implementation.  Get Real About AIDS is a skills-based, HIV risk reduction curriculum designed for students in grades nine–12.  An evaluation of the program found that it increased knowledge of HIV and HIV prevention, reduced the number of sexual partners, and increased condom use among participants.[95]
 
Beginning in the 2008–2009 school year, age-appropriate components of the curriculum were incorporated into class instruction for grades four through 12.[96]  Different lessons are incorporated into different class subject areas, including health, language arts, physical education, and science.[97]  The majority of the lessons are taught in middle school and high school where they are part of health education classes.  District teachers are trained to administer the lessons and may seek assistance from district nurses or nurses employed by the county health department.
 
In high school, the curriculum includes a DVD on proper condom use developed in partnership with the county health department.  The video features a demonstration conducted and narrated by local physicians that presents the information in a “scientific, data-based, and non-emotional” manner.[98]  Text books and supplemental curricula materials are funded through district funds for education supplies.
 
In April 2010, St. Lucie County school district began an evaluation of the Get Real About AIDS curriculum implemented in district schools.  A five-member curriculum evaluation committee, including a university researcher, an epidemiologist from the county health department, an assessment specialist and educator from the St. Lucie County school district, and an administrator from the Osceola County school district, developed the evaluation at the request and approval of the St. Lucie County School Board.  The survey will assess students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS.  Approximately 2,000 eighth and tenth graders from St. Lucie County will participate in the evaluation and approximately 1,000 eighth and tenth graders from Osceola County school district will serve as a control group.[99]
 
Volusia County Public Schools
In April 2009, the Volusia County School Board voted to adopt a new “abstinence-plus” curriculum to be administered to students beginning in the eighth grade.  It maintains the emphasis on abstinence as the most effective means of preventing pregnancy and STDs, but also includes information about reliable methods of birth control and disease prevention.[100]
 
We encourage you to submit any updated or additional information on comprehensive approaches to sex education being implemented in Florida public schools for inclusion in future publications of the SIECUS State Profiles.  Please visit SIECUS’ “Contact Us” webpage at www.siecus.org to share information.  Select “state policy” as the subject heading.
 
 
 
Points of Contact
 
Adolescent Health Contact[101]
Shay Chapman
Florida Department of Health
Family Health Services
4052 Bald Cypress Way, Bin A-13
Tallahassee, FL 32399
Phone: (850) 245-4464
 
Title V Abstinence-Only Grant Coordinator
Shay Chapman
Florida Department of Health
Family Health Services
4052 Bald Cypress Way, Bin A-13
Tallahassee, FL 32399
Phone: (850) 245-4464
 
 
 
Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
ACLU of Florida
Miami, FL
Phone: (786) 363-2700
 
The Healthy Teens Campaign
Sarasota, FL
Phone: (941) 923-4555
 
Florida Association of
Planned Parenthood Affiliates
Sarasota, FL
Phone: (941) 923-5500
 
National Council of Jewish Women
Palm BeachSection
Greenacres, FL
 
National Women’s Political Caucus
of Florida
Pompano Beach, FL
Phone: (954) 946-3265
 
Florida NOW
Gainesville, FL
Phone: (800) 299-1710
 
 
 
Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education
 
Family First
Tampa, FL
Phone: (813) 222-8300
 
Florida Right To Life
Altamonte Springs, FL
Phone: (407) 834-LIFE
 
 
 
Media Outlets
 
Newspapers in Florida[102]
El Nuevo Herald
Miami, FL
Phone: (305) 376-2183
 
The Florida Times-Union
Jacksonville, FL
Phone: (904) 359-4111
 
Florida Today
Melbourne, FL
Phone: (321) 242-3620
 
The Ledger
Lakeland, FL
Phone: (863) 802-7209
 
Miami Herald
Miami, FL
Phone: (305) 376-3557
 
Naples Daily News
Naples, FL
Phone: (239) 262-3161
 
The News-Journal
Daytona Beach, FL
Phone: (386) 252-1511
 
News-Press
Fort Myers, FL
Phone: (239) 335-0200
 
Orlando Sentinel
Orlando, FL
Phone: (407) 420-5000
 
The Palm Beach Post
West Palm Beach, FL
Phone: (561) 820-4400
 
Pensacola News Journal
Pensacola, FL
Phone: (850) 435-8500
 
St. Petersburg Times
Tampa, FL
Phone: (727) 893-8111
 
Sarasota Herald-Tribune
Sarasota, FL
Phone: (941) 361-4800
 
South Florida Sun-Sentinel
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Phone: (954) 356-4000
 
Tampa Tribune
Tampa, FL
Phone: (813) 259-8225
 
 
 
Political Blogs in Florida
Broward’s Blog
 
The Buzz
 
Flablog
 
Florida Politics
 
Florida Today
 
Post on Politics
 
Progress Florida
 
Sayfie Review
 
 
 
 

[1]This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th.  The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2010 began on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010.
[2]The state applied for and received this money but later chose to return the funding as part of the legislature’s decision to refuse all funding allocated through the federal health care reform law, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The state did, however, decide to keep Title V abstinence-only funds, also funded through the federal health care reform law, arguing that it was a pre-existing program.
[7]Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS-5 (4 June 2010): 98–109, accessed 4 June 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5905.pdf>.  Note: Some individual counties in Florida also participated in the 2009 YRBS. 
[8]“Births: Final Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Report, vol. 59, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2010), accessed 29 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_01.pdf>, Table 12.
[9]“VitalStats: Birth Data Files by State, Age of Mother in Years, 2008,” (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), accessed 30 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstats/VitalStats_Births.htm>.
[10]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, (Washington, DC: Guttmacher Institute, January 2010), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf>, Table 3.1.
[11]Ibid., Table 3.2.
[12]U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, Table 3.3.
[13]This section provides data from 2008, the most recent year for which the CDC has reported HIV/AIDS data for young people ages 13–19. For this reason, all the data presented is from 2008 for the purposes of direct comparison.
[14]Ibid.
[15]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010), accessed 28 June 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2008report/pdf/2008SurveillanceReport.pdf>, Table 19.
[16]Slide 9: “Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[17]HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, Table 20.
[18]Ibid.
[19]Slide 18: “Rates of Diagnoses of AIDS Infection among Adolescents Aged13–19 Years, 2009—40 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas,” HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2011), accessed 27 September 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm>.
[20]“Wonder Database: Selected STDs by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender, 1996-2008 Results,” (Atlanta,GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30 June 2009, accessed 5 March 2010, <http://wonder.cdc.gov/>; see also Table 10: “Chlamydia: Reported Cases and Rates Per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, November 2009), accessed 5 March 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/surv2008-Complete.pdf>, 95.
[21]Ibid; see also Table 20: “Gonorrhea—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008,106.
[22]Ibid; see also Table 33: “Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases and Rates per 100,000 Population by Age Group and Sex: United States, 2004–2008,” Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2008, 121.
[23]“Teenage Outreach Program Replication Project: A Randomized Control Trial of TOP in 26 Non-Metropolitan Florida Counties,” Application for Federal Assistance SF-424, FY10 Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs (Tier1 ), Florida Department of Health, (May 2010), 8. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[24]Ibid.
[25]Ibid, 19–20.
[26]Saras Chung and Annie Philipps, Promoting Mental Health and Well-being in Adolescents: Recommendations for Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program, (Eureka, MO: Wyman Teen Outreach Program, 2010), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.wymantop.org/pdfs/TOP_Positive_Well-Being.pdf>, 3.
[27]Ibid, 9.
[28]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Teen Outreach Program,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/teen_outreach_program.html>.
[29]“About Children’s Services Councils,” Juvenile Welfare Board, accessed 22 March 2011, <http://www.jwbpinellas.org/about-cscs>.
[30]“Welcome to JWB,” Juvenile Welfare Board Children’s Services Council of Pinellas County, accessed 22 March 2011, <http://www.jwbpinellas.org/>.
[31]“Comprehensive Youth Supports,” Application for Federal Assistance SF-424, FY10 Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs (Tier1 ), Juvenile Welfare Board Children Services Council of Pinellas County, (June 2010), 31–33. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[32]“Our Program,” The Children’s Aid Society – Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://stopteenpregnancy.childrensaidsociety.org/our-program>.
[33]Ibid.
[34]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Children’s Aid Society (CAS) – Carrera,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/cas_carrera.html>.
[35]“About OIC of Broward County: Mission and Philosophy,” OIC of Broward County, Inc., accessed 22 March 2011, <http://oicofbrowardcounty.org/>.
[36]“Program Offerings: Healthy Relationship/Marriage,” OIC of Broward County, Inc., accessed 22 March 2011, <http://oicofbrowardcounty.org/>.
[37]Ibid.
[38]“OIC of Broward County Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Project,” Application for Federal Assistance SF-424, 30.
[39]Ibid., 1 and 28.
[40]“Becoming A Responsible Teen,” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 5 May 2010, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=2&PageTypeID=2>.
[41]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 76–78.
[42]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 22.
[43]Ibid., 23–24.
[44]Information provided by Andrea Willis, Teen RISE! project director for Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc., 14 June 2011.
[45]“Teen Rise! (Really Important Sex Education) Project,” Application for Federal Assistance SF-424, FY10 Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs (Tier1 ), Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc., (May 2010), 33. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[46]“Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, Empowering (SiHLE),” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=567&PageTypeID=2>.
[47]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 98–101; see also “Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE),” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/sihle.html>.
[48]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Safer Sex,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/safer_sex.html>.
[49]“Our Mission & Vision,” Switchboard of Miami, Inc., accessed 1 June 2011, <http://www.switchboardmiami.org/Pages/OurMission/tabid/58/Default.aspx>.
[50]“Switchboard: Answering the Call,” Switchboard of Miami, Inc., accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.switchboardmiami.org/Pages/AboutSwitchboard/tabid/59/Default.aspx>.
[51]“Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Summary of Funded Evidence-Based Programs for 2010,” U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/grantees/models_2010_programs.html>.
[52]“Project WISE: (Wisdom, Independence, Support, and Education), Application for Federal Assistance, SF-424, Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Replication of Evidence Based Programs (Tier 1), Switchboard of Miami, Inc., (June 2010), 18. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[53]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Be Proud! Be Responsible!” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/all_4_you.html>.
[54]“We Believe…” Trinity Church, Inc., accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.trinitychurch.tv/about-trinity-church-mainmenu-82/belief-statement-mainmenu-49>.
[55]“About Us,” Trinity Church, Inc., accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.trinitychurch.tv/about-trinity-church-mainmenu-82/about-trinity-church-mainmenu-47>.
[56]“Our Story,” Trinity Church, Inc., accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.trinitychurch.tv/about-trinity-church-mainmenu-82/our-history-mainmenu-48>.
[57]“Trinity Church Peacemakers Teen Pregnancy Prevention Project,” Application for Federal Funds SF-424, FY10 Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Replication of Evidence-Based Programs (Tier 1), Trinity Church, Inc., (June 2010), 1. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[58]Ibid., 22.
[59]“Our Mission,” Live the Life Ministries, Inc., accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.livethelife.org/site2/index-1.html>.
[60]“About Us,” CROsSWILD, 2011, accessed 15 September 2011, <http://crosswild.com/our-dream/vision/>; see also “Live It with Champions & Championettes,” Live the Life Ministries, Inc., 2011, accessed 15 September 2011, <http://www.livethelife.org/site2/prog_champions.htm>.
[61]Joneen Krauth-Mackenzie, WAIT (Why Am I Tempted) Training, Second Edition (Greenwood Village, CO: WAIT Training, undated).  For more information, see SIECUS’ review of WAIT Training at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
[62]“The WAIT Project,” Application for Federal Funds SF-424, FY10 Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Research and Demonstration Programs (Tier 2), Live the Life Ministries, Inc., (June 2010), 3. Information obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.
[63]Ibid., 5.
[64]Ibid., 13–14.
[65]  “WAIT ‘Why Am I Tempter,’” Live the Life Ministries, Inc., accessed 30 August 2011, <http://www.livethelife.org/site2/prog_wait.htm>.
[66]“Request for Applications: Abstinence Education Program,” Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Admin/General_services/Purchasing/FA11-006.pdf>, 9.
[67]Ibid.
[68]Ibid., 13–14.
[69]“Making a Difference!” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=127&PageTypeID=2>.
[70]“Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM)” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=573>; see also “Project AIM: Adult Identity Mentoring, A Youth Development Intervention for HIV Risk Reduction,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, accessed 18 August 2011, <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/prev_prog/rep/packages/pdf/aim.pdf>.
[71]“Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM)” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=573>.
[72]“Adult Identity Mentoring (AIM),” Promising Practices, San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.healthysanbernardinocounty.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=PromisePractice&file=promisePractice&pid=3633>.
[73]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Adult Identity Mentoring (Project AIM),” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/adult_identity_mentoring_project_aim.html>.
[74]“Promoting Health Among Teens! Abstinence-Only,” Evidence-Based Programs, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), ETR Associates, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.ebpDetail&PageID=575&PageTypeID=2>.
[75]Ibid.
[76]“Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implementation Report: Promoting Health Among Teens! Abstinence-Only Intervention,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/promoting_health.html>.
[77]This is by no means a complete list of all comprehensive programming and policies related to sexuality education, but rather some examples of best practices and model programs that SIECUS identified.  
[78]Josie A. Weiss et. al., “Learning from a Community Action Plan to Promote Safe Sexual Practices,” Journal of Social Work 55.1, (January 2010), 19–26.
[79]“2417—Comprehensive Health Education,” School Board of Collier County Bylaws and Policies, 19 November 2009, accessed 13 June 2010, <http://www.neola.com/collier-fl/>.
[80]“Local Agencies: Broward County, Florida”, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/locals/fl-broward.htm>.
[81]“Using Technology to Overcome Professional Development Hurdles,” Program Highlights: Broward County, Florida, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/pdf/success_summaries_bcflorida_tech.pdf>.
[82]“Local Agencies: Miami-Dade County, Florida”, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/locals/fl-miami-dade.htm>.
[83]Christopher O’Donnell, “Manatee County Shifts Its Sex-Ed Approach,” 13 April 2010, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20100413/ARTICLE/4131049?tc=ar>.
[84]Ashley Lopez, “Care Net Affiliate Teaches Sex Education in Manatee County Despite Policy Change; Planned Parenthood Still Excluded,” Florida Independent, 11 May 2011, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://floridaindependent.com/29746/carenet-manatee-county-sex-education-planned-parenthood-excluded>.
[86]“Florida: School District Shifts Sex Education Focus,” The Body, 16 April 2011, accessed 29 August 2011, <http://www.thebody.com/content/art56323.html>.
[87]“Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Emerging Answers (Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2007), accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/ea2007/desc/draw_pr.pdf>; see also “Draw the Line/Respect the Line,” Programs for Replication – Intervention Implementation Reports, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, accessed 1 July 2011, <http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/programs/draw_the_line_respect_the_line.html>.
[88]“Local Agencies: Orange County, Florida”, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/pdf/success_summaries_orangecty.pdf>.
[89]“Partnering to Reach Youth at Disproportionate Risk for HIV Transmission” Program Highlights: Orange County, Florida, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/pdf/success_summaries_orangecty.pdf>.
[90]“Local Agencies: Palm Beach County, Florida”, Healthy Youth! (Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), accessed 25 April 2010, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/states/locals/fl-palm-beach.htm>.
[91]“Family Life Education: A Historical Perspective,” PowerPoint presentation, Pinellas County School District.
[92]“Pinellas County Schools Human Sexuality Curriculum Overview,” Pinellas County School District.
[93]Ibid.
[94]Ibid.
[95]Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections (Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008), accessed 30 March 2010, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/sciencesuccess.pdf>, 8–9.
[96]Ibid.
[97]Phone conversation between Morgan Marshall and St. Lucie County School Superintendent Michael Lannon on 1 April 2010.
[98]Ibid.
[99]Phone conversation between Morgan Marshall and Elissa Barr, Professor and Researcher at the University of North Florida, on 5 April 2010.
[100]Pat Hatfield, “Volusia County Schools to Teach Birth Control,” West Volusia Beacon, 2 April 2009, accessed 13 June 2010, <http://www.beacononlinenews.com/news/daily/1604>.
[101]The person listed represents the designated personnel in the state responsible for adolescent reproductive health. 
[102]This section is a list of major newspapers in the state and is by no means exhaustive of local print outlets.
 

 

National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education