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Pennsylvania State Profile Fiscal Year 2008

 Community-based organizations in Pennsylvania received $5,311,515 in federal funds for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Fiscal Year 2008.[1]

(Click Here to View a PDF Version of this Profile)

 
Pennsylvania Sexuality Education Law and Policy
Schools in Pennsylvania are not required to teach sexuality education. Primary, intermediate, middle, and high schools are, however, required to teach sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV education. Schools must use materials that have been determined by the local school district, are age-appropriate, discuss prevention, and stress abstinence as “the only completely reliable means of preventing sexual transmission.”
The state has created the Academic Standards for Health, Safety, and Physical Education, which includes STD- and HIV-prevention education. All decisions regarding HIV-prevention curricula and materials must be made by local school districts. School districts do not have to follow a specific curriculum, but they must use these standards as a framework for the development of their curricula. 
School districts must publicize the fact that parents and guardians can review all curriculum materials. Parents and guardians whose principles or religious beliefs conflict with instruction may excuse their children from the programs. This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.
 
See Pennsylvania Code Title 22, Chapter 4, Section 29, and the Academic Standards for Health, Safety, and Physical Education.
 
 
Recent Legislation
Bill Called for Sexual Violence Awareness Programs
House Bill 1129, also called the College and University Sexual Violence Education Act, was introduced in April 2007. It would have required institutions of higher education and privately licensed schools to set up sexual violence awareness education programs. These programs would have to include a discussion of sexual violence, the possibility of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, and information on where and how to get assistance and medical treatment if sexually assaulted. The bill was sent to the House Committee on Education in November 2007 but failed to move again and died. 
 
 
Pennsylvania’s Youth: Statistical Information of Note[2] 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
·        In 2007, 55% of female high school students and 70% of male high school students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 45% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 6% of female high school students and 24% of male high school students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 14% of female high school students and 37% of male high school students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 41% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 57% of females and 73% of males in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 14% of females and 10% of males in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 12% of females and 18% of males in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 84% of high school students in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.
 
 
Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Funding
·        Pennsylvania was eligible for $1,693,422 in federal Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage funding in Fiscal Year 2008.
·        The Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage grant requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups.
·        Pennsylvania, however, chose not to apply for these funds due to the extraordinary restrictions upon how the money must be spent.
 
The last year that the state of Pennsylvania expended any Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage funds was Fiscal Year 2002. The state did not apply for these funds in Fiscal Years 2002–2005 due to Governor Ed Rendell’s (D) decision to remain out of the program. However, in Fiscal Year 2006, the department of health applied for and was awarded funds, although the process occurred one year late. States have two consecutive years to expend any funds provided in a given fiscal year. Because Fiscal Year 2006 funds were awarded a year late, they had to be expended by June 30, 2007, the end of Pennsylvania’s fiscal year. The state was unable to distribute the funds prior to the deadline and, therefore, the entire $1,693,422 Fiscal Year 2006 award was returned to the federal government unspent. The state did not apply for funds in the 2007 and 2008 fiscal years. 
However, the department of health changed course once again, and submitted an application to the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) for Fiscal Year 2009 despite Governor Rendell administration’s support for a comprehensive approach to sex education. When asked about the new application, Claudine Battisti, the director of communications for Pennsylvania’s Department of Health (DOH), said “Obviously, the DOH knows that the best approach is comprehensive sex education.”[3]
 
 
Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) and Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) Grantees
·        There are seven CBAE grantees in Pennsylvania: one crisis pregnancy center, one university, and five community-based organizations (one faith-based).
·        There is one AFLA grantee in Pennsylvania: To Our Children’s Future with Health, Inc.
·        There are 25 organizations in Pennsylvania that received earmarks for “abstinence education and related services” in Fiscal Year 2008, totaling $835,000 in federal funding. An earmark is a congressional provision that directs approved funds to be spent on a specific project. Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA) was the first Senator to secure earmarks specifically for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. As Ranking Member of the Appropriations Subcommittee that oversees funding levels for Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Senator Specter has great discretion over funds within this appropriations bill.[4]
 
SIECUS has compiled some examples of the use of CBAE and AFLA funding in Pennsylvania:
Esperanza (formerly Nueva Esperanza), $600,000 (CBAE 2007–2012) and $28,000 (Earmark 2008) 
Esperanza is the largest Hispanic non-profit corporation in the United States and receives both CBAE and earmark funding. The organization operates to achieve “community development through the establishment of Hispanic owned and operated institutions that lead to the familial, economic, and spiritual enrichment of our communities.”[5] Esperanza believes “in the transformative power of Jesus Christ that effects change and provides uplifting hope to the “least of these, the underserved and marginalized in our community.”[6]
While headquartered in Philadelphia, Esperanza provides programming and support services to Hispanic communities across the country. In Pennsylvania, their Abstinence Education: Training and Resources Program “provides education, trainings, tools and resources to 10 Hispanic community and faith-based organizations working with young people ages 12-18 in the cities of Philadelphia, Allentown, Bethlehem, Reading and Lancaster, Pennsylvania to increase their capacity to provide abstinence education programs in their respective areas of service.” [7] Esperanza notes that “the objectives of the program are:
 
·         to educate community and faith-based organizations about the importance and benefits of abstinence education;
·         to increase the capacity of participating organizations to offer abstinence education programs by providing trainings and/or seminars to develop or expand abstinence programs in their respective communities;
·         and provide curriculum resources and training to community and faith-based organizations to implement their own abstinence education program.”[8]
 
To Our Children’s Future With Health, Inc., $485,524 (CBAE 2005–2008) and $700,000 (AFLA 2008–2013)
To Our Children’s Future with Health, Inc. (TOCFWH) receives CBAE and ALFA funding for its abstinence-only-until-marriage program “Discovering Dignity: An Education Training Program for Youth,” developed by TOCFWH’s Abstinence Division.[9] Its mission is to “provide comprehensive multi-intervention strategies to educate preteens/teens and their families about the social, psychological and health gains to be realized from abstaining from sexual activity, violence, alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, and to increase participants’ practice of healthy behaviors.”[10] Discovering Dignity is a 52-hour program delivered to students in grades five through 12 by community- and faith-based organizers who are trained as “Certified Abstinence Education Facilitators” by TOCFWH.
 
Women’s Care Center of Erie County, Inc., $463,764 (CBAE 2007–2012) and $37,000 (Earmark 2008)
Women’s Care Center of Erie County, Inc. is a crisis pregnancy center that receives both CBAE and earmark funding. Crisis pregnancy centers typically advertise as providing medical services and then use anti-abortion propaganda, misinformation, and fear and shame tactics to dissuade women facing unintended pregnancy from exercising their right to choose.
      Women’s Care Center includes a great deal of inaccurate and misleading information about abortion and pregnancy on its website. For instance, the organization notes that “50% of post-abortive women report experiencing emotional and psychological disturbances lasting for months or years.”[11] There is no sound scientific evidence linking abortion to subsequent mental health problems, termed “post-abortion stress syndrome” by anti-abortion groups. Neither the American Psychological Association nor the American Psychiatric Association recognize “post-abortion stress syndrome” as a legitimate medical condition.[12] Nevertheless, abortion opponents often refer to studies that have been found to have severe methodological flaws or cite anecdotal evidence of this condition in an effort to scare women out of exercising their right to choose.
      The website also explains that abortion can cause sterility in a small percentage of women and a 50 percent increase in the risk of breast cancer. Abortion is a generally safe procedure, and medically sound research has shown that first trimester abortions rarely cause long-term fertility problems.[13] Further, in February 2003, the National Cancer Institute convened a group of 100 experts on pregnancy and breast cancer risk who reviewed “existing population-based, clinical, and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortion” and concluded that induced abortion is not linked to an increase in the risk of breast cancer.[14]
      The organization also claims that emergency contraception (EC) can cause an abortion, and confuses emergency contraception with mifepristone, a drug which can be used to terminate early pregnancies. According to the American Medical Association, EC is a safe and effective method of preventing pregnancy and does not cause an abortion. [15] In fact, EC is a high dose of regular birth control pills that can reduce a woman’s chance of becoming pregnant by 75 to 89 percent if taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. EC works by delaying or inhibiting ovulation or inhibiting implantation. If an egg has already implanted in a woman’s uterus, EC will not terminate the pregnancy nor will it harm the developing fetus. In fact, research suggests that the availability of EC has led to a decrease in abortions. According to the Guttmacher Institute, emergency contraceptives accounted for up to 43 percent of the decrease in total abortions between 1994 and 2000, and an estimated 51,000 abortions were averted by women’s use of emergency contraceptives in 2000 alone. [16]
      In a further effort to dissuade women from having an abortion, Women’s Care Center performs early sonograms which it describes as “vital to your decision making process.”[17] The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), Society for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (SDMS), American College of Radiology (ACR) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) all discourage the use of ultrasound machines for the non-medical, non-diagnostic reason of manipulating a patients’ decision.[18]
      While Women’s Care Center is not considered a faith-based organization, it uses religious statements to express a women’s right to choose: “God has given you the right to choose. Use it wisely, and you will discover why it is so vitally important.”[19]
      A division of Women’s Care Center runs the Abstinence Advantage Program (AAP) which uses three abstinence-only-until-marriage curricula: Choosing the Best for sixth through eighth grade students, WAIT (Why Am I Tempted) Training for ninth graders, and Character in Action for students in kindergarten through fourth grade.[20]
The Choosing the Best series is one of the more popular abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in the country. The series is comprised of a number of curricula for students from sixth grade through high school: Choosing the Best WAY, Choosing the Best PATH, Choosing the Best LIFE, Choosing the Best JOURNEY, and Choosing the Best SOULMATE. The series has been recently revised and the information about STDs is now medically accurate. However, Choosing the Best curricula continue to promote heterosexual marriage, rely on messages of fear and shame, and include biases about gender, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. For example, Choosing the Best PATH asks students to brainstorm the “emotional consequences” of premarital sex. Suggested answers include “guilt, feeling scared, ruined relationships, broken emotional bonds.”[21] 
SIECUS reviewed WAIT Training and found that it contained little medical or biological information and almost no information about STDs, including HIV/AIDS. Instead, it contains information and statistics about marriage, many of which are outdated and not supported by scientific research. It also contains messages of fear and shame and biased views of gender, sexual orientation, and family type. For example, WAIT Training explains, “men sexually are like microwaves and women sexually are like crockpots….A woman is stimulated more by touch and romantic words. She is far more attracted by a man’s personality while a man is stimulated by sight. A man is usually less discriminating about those to whom he is physically attracted.”[22]
In addition, Women’s Care Center cites the research of Dr. Stan Weed of the Institute for Research and Evaluation as finding AAP extremely successful. Weed was the only witness at the April 2008 Committee on Oversight and Government Reform hearing to investigate the effectiveness of federally funded abstinence-only-until-marriage programs who defended the government’s investment in those programs. By his own account, Weed has spent more than 20 years working on these issues, interviewed more than 500,000 teens, and studied more than 100 abstinence-only programs. Yet, Weed has only one published study in a peer-reviewed journal showing that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs can have any impact on sexual behavior.[23] (The program studied showed a modest impact in helping seventh graders delay sex.) Despite Weed’s insistence that abstinence-only-until-marriage funding continue, he admitted that they have not, up to this point, “done abstinence well” and repeatedly backed away from the legislatively mandated abstinence-only-until-marriage approach. Instead, he preferred the term “abstinence-centered.”
   
 
 
Federal and State Funding for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programs in FY 2008 

Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Grantee
Length of Grant
Amount of Grant
Type of Grant (includes Title V, CBAE, AFLA, and other funds)
La Salle University
2007–2012
$510,089
CBAE
DUAL GRANTEE
2008
$44,000
Earmark
Lincoln Intermediate Unit-12
2008–2013
$550,000
CBAE
Esperanza (Nueva Esperanza)
2007–2012
$600,000
CBAE
DUAL GRANTEE
2008
$28,000
Earmark
People for People
2007–2012
$600,000
CBAE
Rape and Victim Assistance Center of Schuylkill County
2006–2011
 $567,138
CBAE

   

To Our Children’s Future With Health, Inc.
2005–2008
$485,524
 
CBAE
 
DUAL GRANTEE
2008–2013
 $700,000
AFLA
Women’s Care Center of Erie County, Inc.
2007–2012
$463,764
 
CBAE
 
DUAL GRANTEE
2008
 $37,000
 
Earmark
 
A+ For Abstinence
2008
 $24,000
Earmark
Catholic Social Services--Wilkes-Barre
2008
$37,000
Earmark
City of Chester,                 Bureau of Health
2008
$28,000
Earmark
Crozer Chester Medical Center
2008
$28,000
Earmark
Family Service & Children’s Aid Society
2008
$25,000
Earmark
Guidance Center
2008
$25,000
Earmark
Heart Beat
2008
$37,000
Earmark
Keystone Central School District
2008
$32,000
Earmark
Keystone Economic Development Corporation
2008
$32,000
Earmark
Mercy Hospital of Pittsburgh
2008
$44,000
Earmark
My Choice, Inc.
2008
$21,000
Earmark
Neighborhood United Against Drugs
2008
$37,000
Earmark
New Brighton School District
2008
$28,000
Earmark
Partners for Healthier Tomorrows
2008
$21,000
Earmark
Progressive Believers Ministry
2008
$25,000
Earmark
Real Commitment
2008
$44,000
Earmark
School District of Philadelphia
2008
$37,000
Earmark
Shepherd’s Maternity House, Inc.
2008
$25,000
Earmark
Tuscarora Intermediated Unit
2008
$37,000
Earmark
Urban Family Council
2008
$65,000
Earmark
Washington Hospital Teen Outreach
2008
$37,000
Earmark
York County Human Life Services
2008
$37,000
Earmark

 
 
Adolescent Health Contact[24]
Kelly Holland
Pennsylvania Department of Health
Bureau of Family Health
7th Floor, East Wing
Health & Welfare Building
Harrisburg, PA 17108
Phone: (717) 772-2762 
 
 
Pennsylvania Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education

ACLU of Pennsylvania
P.O. Box 40008
Philadelphia, PA 19006
Phone: (215) 592-1513
 
Adagio Health
960 Penn Avenue, Suite 600
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone: (412) 288-2130          
Attic Youth Center
255 South 16th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102
Phone: (215) 545-433
 
Christian Association of U. Penn.
118 South 37th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: (215) 746-6350
 
Family Health Council of Central Pennsylvania
3461 Market Street, Suite 200
Camp Hill, PA 17011
Phone: (717) 761-7380
 
The Family Planning Council
260 South Broad Street, Suite 1000
Philadelphia, PA 19102
Phone: (215) 985-2600
 
NARAL Pro-Choice Pennsylvania
P.O. Box 58174
Philadelphia, PA 19102
Phone: (215) 546-4666
 
National Council of Jewish Women
1620 Murray Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
Phone: (412) 421-6118
Pennsylvania Coalition to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
3461 Market Street, Suite 200
Camp Hill, PA 1710
Phone: (717) 761-7380
 
Planned Parenthood Pennsylvania Advocates
300 North 2nd Street, Suite 400
Harrisburg, PA 17101
Phone: (717) 234-3024
 
Statewide Pennsylvania Rights Coalition
30 Forgedale Road
Fleetwood, PA 19522
Phone: (717) 920-9537
 
 
 

Pennsylvania Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education

Pennsylvania Family Institute
23 North Front Street
Harrisburg, PA 17101
Phone: (717) 545-0600
www.pafamily.org
 
Pennsylvanians for Human Life
590 Snyder Avenue
West Chester, PA 19382
Phone: (610) 696-0780
 
 
 
Pennsylvania Pro-Life Federation
4800 Jonestown Road, Suite 102
Harrisburg, PA 17109
Phone: (717) 541-0034
 
 
 
People for Life
1625 West 26th Street
P.O. Box 1126
Erie, PA 16512
Phone: (814) 459-1333

Newspapers in Pennsylvania[25]

Bucks County Courier Times
Newsroom
8400 Route 13
Levittown, PA 19057
Phone: (215) 949-4000
 
Erie Times-News
Newsroom
205 West 12th Street
Erie, PA 16534
Phone: (814) 870-1600
The Morning Call
Newsroom
101 North 6th Street
Allentown, PA 18101
Phone: (610) 820-6500
 
The Patriot-News
Newsroom
812 Market Street
Harrisburg, PA 17101
Phone: (717) 255-8100
Philadelphia Daily News
Newsroom
400 North Broad Street
Philadelphia, PA 19130
Phone: (215) 854-5900
 
Philadelphia Inquirer
Newsroom
400 North Broad Street
Philadelphia, PA 19130
Phone: (215) 854-5900
Philadelphia Metro
Newsroom
30 S. 15th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102
Phone: (215) 717-2600
 
Philadelphia Tribune
Newsroom
520 S. 16th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19146
Phone: (215) 893-4050
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Newsroom
34 Boulevard of the Allies
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone: (412) 263-1100
 
Reading Eagle
Newsroom
345 Penn Street
Reading, PA 19603
Phone: (610) 371-5000
Tribune-Review
Newsroom
503 Martindale Street, 3rd Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15212
Phone: (412) 321-6460
 

 
 


[1]This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2008 began on October 1, 2007 and ended on September 30, 2008.  
[2] Unless otherwise cited, all statistical information comes from: Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57.SS-4 (6 June 2008), accessed 4 June 2008, http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm>. Note: the state of Pennsylvania did not participate in the 2007 YRBS.
[3] Isaiah Thompson, “Rendell applies for abstinence-only money from feds,” Philadelphia City Paper, 28 August 2008, accessed 3 September 2008, <http://www.citypaper.net/blogs/clog/2008/08/28/rendell-applies-for-abstinence-only-money-from-feds/>.
[4] In the Fiscal Year 2007 Edition of the State Profiles, SIECUS erroneously reported that Pennsylvania received $3.36 million in earmarks for Fiscal Year 2007. While the Senate version of the Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (Labor-HHS) appropriations bill did include the earmarks, there were no earmarks included in the final bill.
 
[5] “Who we Are,” Esperanza, accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.esperanza.us/site/c.giKPL8PQLvF/b.3916213/k.23DA/Who_we_are.htm>.
[6] Ibid.
[7] “Tesoros de Esperanza – Pennsylvania,” Esperanza, accessed 3 March 2009, <http://www.esperanza.us/site/>.
[8] Ibid.
[9] “Abstinence Division,” To Our Children’s Future with Health, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.tocfwh.org/AbstinenceDivision.asp>.
[10] Ibid.
[11] “Considering Abortion?,” Women’s Care Center of Erie County, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.wccerie.org/Considering%20Abortion.htm>.
[12] Brenda Major et al, “Report of the APA Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion,” American
Psychological Association, (13 August 2008) accessed 8 October 2008, <http://www.apa.org/releases/abortion-report.pdf >.
[13] Susan Cohen, “Abortion and Mental Health: Myths and Realities,” Guttmacher Policy Review (Summer 2006 Volume 9, Number 3), accessed 30 January 2007, <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/gpr/09/3/gpr090308.html>.
[14] National Cancer Institute, “Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk,” 30 May 2003, accessed 30 January 2007, <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/>.
[15] “Female Reproduction – Pregnancy,” American Medical Association, (September 30, 2008), accessed 16 October 2008, <http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/7161.html>.
[16] FDA — Food and Drug Administration, “Prescription Drug Products; Certain Combined Oral Contraceptives for Use as Postcoital Emergency Contraception,” Federal Register 62.37 (1997): 8609-8612; Rachel K. Jones, et. al. “Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in 2000-2001,” Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health 34.6 (Nov./Dec. 2002): 294-303.
[17] “Free Sonograms,” Women’s Care Center of Erie County, accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.wccerie.org/Sonogram%20Information.htm>. 
[18] “AIUM Discourages the Sale and Use of Ultrasound Equipment for Personal Use in the Home,” Press Release (28 November 2005) accessed 31 January 2007, <http://www.aium.org/pressRoom/_releasesContent.asp?id=106>.
[19] “Healthy Relationships,” Women’s Care Center of Erie County, accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.wccerie.org/Healthy%20Relationships.htm>.
[20] “Curriculum,” Abstinence Advantage Program, A Division of the Women's Care Center of Erie County, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.wccerie.org/curriculummain.htm>
[21] Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best, Inc., 2001-2007).
[22]  Joneen Krauth-Mackenzie, WAIT (Why Am I Tempted) Training, Second Edition (Greenwood Village, CO: WAIT Training, undated). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of WAIT Training at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
[23] For more information on the hearing see SIECUS’ Policy Update, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Holds First-Ever Hearings on Abstinence Only Until Marriage Programs, at <http://www.siecus.org/index.cfm?>.
[24] SIECUS has identified this person as a state-based contact for information on adolescent health and if applicable, abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. 
[25] This section is a list of major newspapers in your state with contact information for their newsrooms. This list is by no means exhaustive and does not contain the local level newspapers which are integral to getting your message out to your community. SIECUS strongly urges you to follow stories about the issues that concern you on the national, state, and local level by using an internet news alert service such as Google alerts, becoming an avid reader of your local papers, and establishing relationships with reporters who cover your issues. For more information on how to achieve your media goals visit the SIECUS Community Action Kit.

 

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