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Texas State Profile Fiscal Year 2008

The Department of State Health Services and community-based organizations in Texas received $14,289,087  in federal funds for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Fiscal Year 2008.[1]

 
Texas Sexuality Education Law and Policy
Texas does not require sexuality education. However, Texas Education Code states that if a school district does teach sexuality education, HIV/AIDS prevention, or sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention education, then it must:
  • present abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior for unmarried persons of school age;
  • devote more attention to abstinence from sexual activity than to any other behavior;
  • emphasize that abstinence from sexual activity, if used consistently and correctly, is the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, infection with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity;
  • direct adolescents to a standard of behavior in which abstinence from sexual activity before marriage is the most effective way to prevent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS);
  • teach contraception and condom use in terms of human use reality rates instead of theoretical laboratory rates, if instruction on contraception and condoms is included in curriculum content;
  • not distribute condoms in connection with instruction relating to human sexuality; and
  • separate students according to sex for instructional purposes.
Sexuality education and STD/HIV-prevention education are also included in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Education, which are written by the Texas Education Agency.
Each school district must also have a local health advisory council established by the board of trustees. The council must make recommendations to the school district about changes in that district’s curriculum and must make recommendations about “the appropriate grade levels and methods of instruction for human sexuality instruction.” This council also must “assist the district in ensuring that local community values are reflected in the district’s health education instruction.”
      Parents or guardians may remove their children from any part of sexuality education instruction by submitting a written request to the teacher. This is referred to as an “opt-out” policy.

See Texas Education Code Sections 28.004, and 26.010 and Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Education.
 
Recent Legislation
Bill to Require Medically Accurate Human Development and Sexuality Education
In March 2007, House Bill 3165 was introduced in the Texas State Legislature where it was referred to the Committee on State Affairs. This bill would have required instruction on human development or sexuality to be medically accurate. The bill failed to move out of committee and died. 
 
Anti-Discrimination in Public Schools Bill Introduced
House Bill 305, introduced in January of 2007 and referred to the Committee on Public Education, would have amended the Education Code to prohibit a public educational institution or employee of a public educational institution from discriminating against students on the basis of ethnicity, color, gender, gender identity, sexual preference, disability, religion, or national origin of the student or the student’s parent. The bill failed to move out of committee and died. 
 
Legislation Aims to Create an Opt-In Policy for Schools
House Bill 311, introduced in January 2007 and referred to the Committee on Public Education, would have amended the current opt-out policy across the state by requiring school districts to obtain the written consent of a student’s parent or guardian before the student could receive instruction on human sexuality education. This is referred to as an “opt-in” policy. The bill failed to move out of committee and died. 
 
Legislation to Expand Definition of Human Sexuality Education
House Bill 503, introduced in January of 2007, would have amended the Education Code to specify that instruction on human sexuality must, among other things, provide a clear understanding of abstinence from sexual activity, include strategies to promote effective family communication about human sexuality, analyze the benefits of a monogamous relationship for students who are unable to abstain from sexual activity, and ensure that information about condoms and contraception is medically accurate. The bill failed to move out of committee and died. 
 
 
Texas’s Youth: Statistical Information of Note[2]
·        In 2007, 51% of female high school students and 55% of male high school students in Texas reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students in Texas reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
·
·        In 2007, 14% of female high school students and 20% of male high school students in Texas reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 39% of female high school students and 39% of male high school students in Texas reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 49% of females and 64% of males in Texas reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 15% of females and 12% of males in Texas reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 19% of females and 26% of males in Texas reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 86% of high school students in Texas reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.
 
Dallas, Texas
·        In 2007, 48% of female high school students and 67% of male high school students in Dallas, Texas reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 5% of female high school students and 23% of male high school students in Dallas, Texas reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
·
·        In 2007, 10% of female high school students and 30% of male high school students in Dallas, Texas reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 36% of female high school students and 45% of male high school students in Dallas, Texas reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 48% of females and 70% of males in Dallas, Texas reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 12% of females and 10% of males in Dallas, Texas reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 9% of females and 25% of males in Dallas, Texas reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 77% of high school students in Dallas, Texas reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.
 
Houston, Texas
·        In 2007, 43% of female high school students and 58% of male high school students in Houston, Texas reported ever having had sexual intercourse compared to 46% of female high school students and 50% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 4% of female high school students and 17% of male high school students in Houston, Texas reported having had sexual intercourse before age 13 compared to 4% of female high school students and 10% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 10% of female high school students and 24% of male high school students in Houston, Texas reported having had four or more lifetime sexual partners compared to 12% of female high school students and 18% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 33% of female high school students and 38% of male high school students in Houston, Texas reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey) compared to 36% of female high school students and 34% of male high school students nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 58% of females and 70% of males in Houston, Texas reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 55% of females and 69% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 8% of females and 10% of males in Houston, Texas reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 19% of females and 13% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 11% of females and 19% of males in Houston, Texas reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse compared to 18% of females and 28% of males nationwide.
 
·        In 2007, 79% of high school students in Houston, Texas reported having been taught about AIDS/HIV in school compared to 90% of high school students nationwide.
 
 
Title V Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Funding
·        The Texas Department of State Health Servicesreceived $4,777,916 in federal Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage funding in Fiscal Year 2008.
·        The Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage grant requires states to provide three state-raised dollars or the equivalent in services for every four federal dollars received. The state match may be provided in part or in full by local groups.
·        In Texas, the match is provided through the state budget, in-kind services from the sub-grantees, and an in-kind match from a state media campaign.
·        There are 20 sub-grantees in Texas: one crisis pregnancy center, one health center, one hospital, two school districts, two universities, and 13 community-based organizations (including two faith-based).
 
SIECUS has compiled some examples of the use of federal Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage funding in the state:  
Abstinence America, $61,516 (2008)
Abstinence America is a faith-based community organization. Its mission is “to assist parents, pastors and teachers in reaching every child in America with the simple message that God loves them and has a wonderful plan for their lives and their sexuality. However, only when it is expressed within the context of His design will they experience its most exciting potential.”[3] The organization’s goal is to teach the “overwhelming benefits of abstinence-until-marriage” for fifth graders through high school students.[4] The founder of Abstinence America, Mike Goss, claims to have created the organization after “years of witnessing the widespread physical, emotional and relational carnage that’s left behind from sexual promiscuity.”[5] The organization is currently selling his book Safe Sex: Myth or Reality?, and Mike Goss is currently working on his new book, 10 Things God Wants Parents to Teach their Kids About Sex.
            Abstinence America’s abstinence-only-until-marriage program, “Our Sex Is Not A Game,” targets students in elementary school through high school. It consists of, “a 4 day presentation for high school students that have influenced thousands to make the smart choice and choose abstinence.”[6] Abstinence America describes this program as “character training” in which “young people who have the strength of character to abstain are more prone to become winners in life and make it all the way to the ‘Promised Land’ of happy and satisfying marriages.”[7] In addition to offering school programs, Abstinence America refers students to both the Abstinence Clearinghouse and the Medical Institute.[8] The Abstinence Clearinghouse was founded by Leslee Unruh. Ms.Unruh is also the president and founder of the Alpha Center, a crisis pregnancy center, which is housed at the same location as the Abstinence Clearinghouse. The Abstinence Clearinghouse is a long-time leader in the abstinence-only-until-marriage industry and opponent of comprehensive sexuality education. (For more information on the Medical Institute, see the CBAE and AFLA section.) 
Abstinence America runs a PSA campaign also called “Our Sex Is Not A Game!” which is shown in Houston-area movie theaters. Advertisements range from showing statistics about sexually transmitted infection rates to ones that say “Babysitter Wanted.”[9]
In addition, the organization’s website contains misinformation. For example, one quote in its “What the Experts are Saying” section reads, “Condom use is of little or no value in protecting patients from papilloma infection.”[10] In reality, condoms can protect against HPV. According to a University of Washington study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, consistent condom use can cut a woman’s risk of infection by 70 percent and protect her from developing precancerous cervical changes.[11]
 
Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services, $70,426 (2008) 
The Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services is a faith-based crisis pregnancy center located in Austin. Crisis pregnancy centers typically advertise as providing medical services and then use anti-abortion propaganda, misinformation, and fear and shame tactics to dissuade women facing unintended pregnancy from exercising their right to choose.
Austin LifeCare’s services include an “After Abortion Care” program which provides “support for the spiritual, emotional, and psychological effects that can occur after an abortion experience” through a “life-changing Bible study and support group” and a help group for those who need “healing from sexual sin.”[12] The After Abortion Care program uses hosts of support groups and Bible studies for women who have had an abortion and for affected men who are both seeking “understanding and healing from their experience.”[13]
There is no sound scientific evidence linking abortion to subsequent mental health problems, termed “post-abortion stress syndrome” by anti-abortion groups. Neither the American Psychological Association nor the American Psychiatric Association recognize “post-abortion stress syndrome” as a legitimate medical condition.[14] Nevertheless, abortion opponents often refer to studies that have been found to have severe methodological flaws or cite anecdotal evidence of this condition in an effort to scare women out of exercising their right to choose.
Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services partners with the abstinence-only-until-marriage program “Austin LifeGuard Character and Sexuality Education,” which is run in public and private schools. (See the CBAE section for more information on Austin LifeGuard Character and Sexuality Education.)
 
Colorado Independent School District, $51,033 (2008)
The Colorado Independent School District (CISD) uses a variety of abstinence-only-until-marriage curricula including Baby Think It Over, Aim for Success, Why kNOw, and WAIT (Why Am I Tempted) Training.[15] SIECUS reviewed Why kNOw and found that it offers limited information about important topics in human sexuality such as puberty, anatomy, and human reproduction, and no information about sexual orientation and gender identity. The information that is included is outdated, inaccurate, and misleading. In addition, Why kNOw relies on negative messages, distorts information, and presents biased views on gender, marriage, family structure, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. For example, the curriculum tells students that the tradition of lifting the veil shows that “the groom [is] the only man allowed to uncover the bride,” and demonstrates “her respect for him by illustrating that she [has] not allowed any other man to lay claim to her.”[16]
SIECUS reviewed WAIT Training and found that it contained little medical or biological information and almost no information about STDs, including HIV/AIDS. Instead, it contains information and statistics about marriage, many of which are outdated and not supported by scientific research. It also contains messages of fear and shame and biased views of gender, sexual orientation, and family type. For example, WAIT Training explains, “men sexually are like microwaves and women sexually are like crockpots….A woman is stimulated more by touch and romantic words. She is far more attracted by a man’s personality while a man is stimulated by sight. A man is usually less discriminating about those to whom he is physically attracted. She is far more attracted by a man’s personality while a man is stimulated by sight. A man is usually less discriminating about those to whom he is physically attracted.”[17]
 
Shannon Health and Wellness, $195,359 (2008) and $600,000 (CBAE 2006–2011)
Shannon Health and Wellness is a health center and clinic that has been operating a community-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program called “Right Choices for Youth (RCY)” since 1999. Shannon Health and Wellness notes that RCY was inspired by a conference held by then-Texas Governor George W. Bush, entitled “Conference on Right Choices for Youth.” The organization claims to have reached “more than 10,000 students in 14 school districts across West Central Texas with abstinence education, character education, and alternative activities to risky behaviors.”[18]
As part of its abstinence-only-until-marriage outreach, RCY recruits instructors to teach abstinence-only-until-marriage curricula in schools. Instructors are local teachers who use both Choosing the Best Soulmate and Worth the Wait in the RCY program and in their own classrooms.[19] The Choosing the Best series is one of the more popular abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in the country. The series is comprised of a number of curricula for students from sixth grade through high school: Choosing the Best WAY, Choosing the Best PATH, Choosing the Best LIFE, Choosing the Best JOURNEY, and Choosing the Best SOULMATE. The series has been recently revised and the information about STDs is now medically accurate. However, Choosing the Best curricula continue to promote heterosexual marriage, rely on messages of fear and shame, and include biases about gender, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. For example, Choosing the Best PATH asks students to brainstorm the “emotional consequences” of premarital sex. Suggested answers include “guilt, feeling scared, ruined relationships, broken emotional bonds.”[20]
SIECUS reviewed Worth the Wait and found that it covers some important topics related to sexuality such as puberty, anatomy, and sexual abuse, and that the curriculum is based on reliable sources of data. Despite these strengths, Worth the Wait relies on messages of fear, discourages contraceptive use, and promotes biased views of gender, marriage, and pregnancy options. For example, the curriculum explains that “teenage sexual activity can create a multitude of medical, legal, and economic problems not only for the individuals having sex but for society as a whole.”[21]
RCY uses three sources as additional resources on sexual health: Abstinence Clearinghouse, the Medical Institute for Sexual Health, and the Texas Department of State Health Services - Abstinence Education Program.[22] In addition, it refers to the Medical Institute for Sexual Health as a specific resource on sexually transmitted infections. (For more information on the Medical Institute, see the CBAE and AFLA section.) 
In addition, RCY uses fear and shame-based tactics in order to convey its abstinence-only-until-marriage message. Specifically the program’s website tells youth that premarital sex will interfere with becoming what one wants to be: a doctor, nurse, teacher, astronaut, lawyer, or business owner.[23]
 
Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) and Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) Grantees
·        There are 15 CBAE grantees in Texas: one crisis pregnancy center, one school district, two universities, two abstinence-only-until-marriage industry leaders, three health centers, and six community-based organizations (one faith-based).
·        There are four AFLA grantees in Texas: Austin Learning Academy, Baptist Child and Family Services, Baptist Children’s Home Ministries (also a CBAE grantee), and Fifth Ward Enrichment Program. 
 
SIECUS has compiled some of the most egregious examples of the use of CBAE and AFLA funding in Texas:
Austin LifeGuard Character and Sexuality Education, $582,900 (CBAE 2008–2013)
Austin LifeGuard Character and Sexuality Education is a community-based organization that implements an abstinence-only-until-marriage program in nearly half a dozen public and private schools. It operates in partnership with the Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services (a crisis pregnancy center and Title V sub-grantee) and the Medical Institute (a fellow CBAE grantee). (See the Title V section for more information on Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services.)
LifeGuard’s website contains a great deal of biased and inaccurate information. For example, its library of resources includes the faith-based blogging site virtuousreality.com and the Far Right organization the Family Research Council.[24] In addition, as part of its section “Get The Facts” on abortion, LifeGuard states:
 
Did you know that there is a syndrome that many women get after having an abortion? It is called PASS (Post-Abortion Stress Syndrome). People with Post-Abortion Stress Syndrome can experience:
·        Grief
·        Shame/Survivor’s Guilt
·        Anger
·        Suicidal Thoughts
·        Eating Disorders
·        Substance Abuse”[25]
 
It further goes on to state that, “Post-Abortion Stress Syndrome symptoms occur an average of 8 years after the abortion.”[26] (See the Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage section for more information on post abortion stress syndrome.)
The site includes a game that allows visitors to determine whether they are “datable” by taking a quiz that uses gender stereotypes such as suggesting that all men are sexually aggressive and all women are sexually passive. In addition, the quiz defines datable men as those who are “being responsible being a man” and women as not revealing too much about themselves too quickly: “You know they can’t take it all in at once, so you only give them a little peek at a time. Guys are dying to find out more about you. That’s what keeps ‘em coming back for more.”[27]
 
Longview Wellness Center, Inc., $158,863 (2008) and $800,000 (CBAE 2005–2008)
Longview touts itself as the “only provider of State and Federally funded abstinence services” in the area and runs the program “East Texas Abstinence Program (ETAP)” with multiple strategies to promote abstinence. The first component is a “media blitz” that includes www.virginityrules.com (aimed at teens), www.teach2wait.com (aimed at parents), and www.wevownow.com (aimed at married couples).
Longview Wellness Center uses two curricula: FACTS: Family Accountability Communicating Teen Sexuality and Choosing the Best in elementary through high schools. SIECUS reviewed the FACTS curricula and found that they provide incomplete and inaccurate medical information; present opinions and beliefs as universal truths; and portray a biased view of gender, marriage, family structure, sexual orientation, and pregnancy options. For example, FACTS includes the following list of negative consequences of premarital sex: “Pregnancy, financial aspect of fatherhood, abortion, HIV/AIDS, STDs, guilt, rejection, loss of reputation, inability to bond in the future, challenge to not compare future sexual partners, alienation from friends and family, poverty, and the inability to complete school.” FACTS also tells young people in no uncertain terms that life begins when sperm and egg meet: “At conception, the baby came into being. Even though he or she was only the size and appearance of a pencil dot, the baby was a separate, genetically unique individual.”[28]  (See the Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage section for more information on Choosing the Best.)
       Longview’s abstinence-only-until-marriage program and the ETAP also work with “Youth and Adult Coalitions.” These coalitions coordinate abstinence events and presentations, including a “Virginity Pledge Day.” Research has found that 88 percent of young people who took a virginity pledge ultimately had sexual intercourse before marriage. Under certain conditions these pledges may help some adolescents delay sexual intercourse. When they work, pledges help this select group of adolescents delay the onset of sexual intercourse for an average of 18 months—far short of marriage. Researchers found that pledges only worked when taken by a small group of students. Pledges taken by a whole class were ineffective. More importantly, the studies also found that those young people who took a pledge were one-third less likely to use contraception when they did become sexually active than their peers who had not pledged. These teens are therefore more vulnerable to the risks of unprotected sexual activity such as unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV/AIDS. Further research has confirmed that although some students who take pledges delay intercourse, ultimately they are equally as likely to contract an STD as their non-pledging peers. The study also found that STD rates were higher in communities where a significant proportion (over 20 percent) of the young people had taken virginity pledges.[29]
      Longview Wellness Center relies on many national Far Right organizations as health resources including: the Heritage Foundation, Focus on the Family, Abstinence Clearinghouse, and the Medical Institute.[30] Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institute— a think tank—whose mission is “to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.”[31] The Heritage Foundation frequently produces research that attempts to link premarital sexual activity and out-of-wedlock childbearing to a host of social and emotional problems including suicide and poverty. This research is not subject to peer review.
      Longview Wellness Center uses an excerpt from Focus on the Family in order to teach parents how to talk about abstinence to their kids. The passage explains that parents must come clean by confronting their own sexual misgivings before they have “the talk” about sex. The passage uses refers to “scriptural truth” and quotes from King James Bible:
 
·        “Flee fornication. Every sin that man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body.”
·        “Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.”
·        “For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies…”[32]
 
Led by James Dobson, Focus on the Family promotes marriage and abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. Its mission reads, “To cooperate with the Holy Spirit in sharing the Gospel of Jesus Christ with as many people as possible by nurturing and defending the God-ordained institution of the family and promoting biblical truths worldwide.”[33] Focus on the Family is a long-time opponent of comprehensive sexuality education. (See the Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage section for more information on the Abstinence Clearinghouse.)   
In addition ETAP relies on fear and shame tactics to promote sexual abstinence among youth including testimonials such as:
 
Making bad decisions can change your life. Case in point, I had a friend who thought being abstinent wasn’t important, like it wasn’t a big deal. She’d always say, “whatever”. That’s until the day she discovered she was pregnant and had HIV. Now, my friend, well she doesn’t think much of anything, with AIDS and taking care of a two year old, now she’s wishing she’d made abstinence a very big deal.[34]
 
      As part of ETAP’s media campaign, this testimonial, and others like this one, is also available as a video entitled “David’s TV Spot” at www.virginityrules.com.[35] Other ads include a 14-year-old mentioning that “STDs would ruin my life” and “would I lose my education?” when pondering about the negative consequences of sex.[36] The campaign sells T-shirts such as “Front Reads: ‘Getting Drunk .... Hangover .... Smoking .... Cancer .... Stealing .... Jail.’ Back Reads: ‘Reward for remaining abstinent until marriage ... PRICELESS’.”[37]
 
Medical Institute, $598,324 (CBAE 2006–2011)
The Medical Institute, formerly the Medical Institute for Sexual Health, is an abstinence-only-until-marriage industry leader that is used as a pivotal resource for Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage and CBAE grantees, including all Texas-based grantees. The Medical Institute helps them implement abstinence-only-until-marriage programs and considers itself a “medical, educational, and research organization.” It explains that “MI was founded to confront the global epidemics of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We identify and evaluate scientific information on sexual health and promote healthy sexual decisions and behaviors by communicating credible scientific information.”[38] In Fiscal Year 2006, 25 percent of the organization’s budget came from CBAE dollars.[39]
      The Medical Institute is launching a $1 million sexual health campaign that includes the creation of a 22-minute parent-child video and a new sexual health website at www.hookingupstories.org where “users can participate in an interactive platform that discusses sexual choices and outcomes.”[40] It also promotes the book Hooked: New Science on How Casual Sex is Affecting Our Children, co-authored by Dr. Joe S. McIlhaney Jr., the founder of The Medical Institute.[41] Hooked describes itself as a revelation in “new research on the impact that sex, even “safe” sex, can have on the adolescent brain… Once “hooked,” the couple has a bond that is not easily broken. When separation does occur, it has a chemical and biological impact on the brain – an impact that affects future behavior and happiness.”[42]
      The Medical Institute frequently refers to “nonmarital pregnancy.” Its website includes a section entitled, “What Happens to Teen Mothers/Fathers?” Among other things, the section asserts that teen fathers make less money than their peers, the majority of teen moms do not earn their GED, children of teens are less intelligent than other children, and teen parents are likely not to marry one another and likely to remain single in the future.[43] While it is quite possible that some of this research may demonstrate accurate correlations, it is misleading to place the blame on “nonmarital pregnancy” rather than socioeconomic, cultural, ideological, and other extraneous variables that may contribute to unintended pregnancy.
      A report commissioned by the Medical Institute called The Attack on Abstinence Education: Fact or Fallacy? criticizes research that the organization claims has unfairly attacked abstinence-only-until-marriage programs.[44] The organization inaccurately states that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs have been proven effective and teaching teens about abstinence and contraception is sending a “mixed message.” In fact, research shows that education that teaches about both abstinence and contraception is not only compatible but also works and is preferred by parents.[45] Further, comprehensive sexuality education has actually been shown to be more effective at teaching abstinence and encouraging young people to delay sexual activity than abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. [46] The Medical Institute also claims that parents are against teaching comprehensive sexuality education. Recent polling reveals, however, that a vast majority of adults support a comprehensive approach to sexuality education—one that provides students with information about abstinence and contraception, including birth control and condoms. [47]
           
Worth the Wait, Inc., $593,289 (CBAE 2007–2012)
Worth the Wait is an abstinence-only-until-marriage industry leader and producer of a popular abstinence-only-until-marriage program by the same name. It is used by other abstinence-only-until-marriage grantees such as Shannon Health and Wellness and in roughly 30 schools and ten school districts in Texas. (See the Title V abstinence-only-until-marriage section for more information on the Worth the Wait curriculum.) In Fiscal Year 2006, 60 percent of the organization’s budget came from CBAE dollars.[48]
      The organization Worth the Wait was formed in Pampa, Texas, in 1997 to address “teen sexual activity as a public health issue,” and offers a range of services including: curricula training, parent education, after-school programs, consultation services to churches and schools, and “Quinceñera Rite of Passage Events.”[49]
      Worth the Wait uses stigmatizing, misleading, and medically inaccurate statements as part of its online information on sexual health. For instance, Worth the Wait claims that teen sex can jeopardize goals in education, career, marriage, finances, and one’s emotional and physical well-being.[50] It goes on to explain that the benefits of abstaining from sex mean “freedom” from losing respect for yourself, having a damaged reputation, and ruining the “care-free enjoyment of your teenage years.”[51] Worth the Wait condemns any sort of sexual contact including kissing because, they claim, it is not true abstinence and will inevitably lead to sexual intercourse.[52] The organization compares using the risk reduction of a condom to using a radar detector on a speeding vehicle; “speeding can still get you a ticket or lead to injury while condoms can still get you a sexually transmitted infection, pregnant, and/or suffer legal and emotional problems.”[53]
      Worth the Wait cites studies from the Heritage Foundation that “have shown a correlation between teen sexual activity and school expulsion, depression and suicide attempts. In addition, students who remained virgins were twice as likely to graduate from college than those who didn’t.”[54]
      The organization also promotes www.parentsfortruth.org, a campaign sponsored by the National Abstinence Education Association, as a resource for knowing the difference between abstinence and comprehensive sexuality programs.[55] The National Abstinence Education Association is the lobbying arm of the abstinence-only-until-marriage movement. Its mission reads, “The NAEA exists to serve, support and represent individuals and organizations in the practice of abstinence education.” [56] Since its inception, the NAEA has undertaken a number of media campaigns that use fear and misinformation in an attempt to discredit comprehensive sexuality education.
 
 
Federal and State Funding for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programs in FY 2008

Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Grantee
Length of Grant
Amount of Grant
Type of Grant (includes Title V, CBAE, AFLA, and other funds)
Texas Department of State Health Services
 
$4,777,916 federal
$540,000 state
Title V
Abstinence America   
$61,516
Title V sub-grantee
Arlington ISD
www.aisd.net                        
$252,173
Title V sub-grantee
Austin LifeCare Pregnancy Services              
www.austinlifecare.com                  
$70,426
Title V sub-grantee
Colorado Independent School District                   
$51,033
Title V sub-grantee
Communities In Schools Corpus Christi, Inc.    
2008–2013
$379,119
 
 
Title V sub-grantee
 
 
Fisher County Healthcare Development Corp.                          
$73,667
Title V sub-grantee
DUAL GRANTEE
2007–2012
$542,500
CBAE
Girls Incorporated of Metropolitan Dallas
www.girlsincdallas.org                                   
$60,783
Title V sub-grantee
Girls Incorporated of Tarrant County
www.girlsinctarrant.org                                    
$50,627
Title V sub-grantee
JOVEN-Juvenile Outreach Vocational/Educational Network                            
$143,578
Title V sub-grantee
Lamar CO Coalition of Education, Business & Industry, Inc.
$159,632
 
Title V sub-grantee
 
Longview Wellness Center, Inc.
DUAL GRANTEE
2005–2008
$158,863
$800,000
Title V sub-grantee
CBAE
McLennan County Collaborative Abstinence Project (McCAP)          
www.mccap.org                   
$131,724
Title V sub-grantee
Medical Institute
2006–2011
$598,324
CBAE
New Hope Counseling Center, Inc.                            
 $115,497
Title V sub-grantee
Planned Parenthood Center of El Paso         
$51,637
Title V sub-grantee
Shannon Health and Wellness
DUAL GRANTEE
2006–2011
$195,359
$600,000
Title V sub-grantee
CBAE
Skillful Living Center Incorporated                          
$129,500
Title V sub-grantee
Southwest Community Economic Development Corp.
$97,828
Title V sub-grantee
DUAL GRANTEE
2007–2012
$600,000
CBAE
Texas College
DUAL GRANTEE
2008–2013
www.texascollege.edu                                   
$134,229
$600,000
Title V sub-grantee
CBAE
The Urban League of Greater Dallas & North Central Texas, Inc.        
www.ulgdnctx.com                    
$121,808
Title V sub-grantee
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio          
 
DUAL GRANTEE
 
2005–2008
 
                 
$344,777
 
$213,276
Title V sub-grantee
 
CBAE
Alternative Community Development Services
2008–2013
$454,922
CBAE
Austin LifeGuard Character and Sexuality Education
2008–2013
$582,900
CBAE
Baptist Children’s Home Ministries
2006–2011
$395,500
 
CBAE
 
DUAL GRANTEE
2004–2009
 $300,000
AFLA
Families Under Urban & Social Attack, Inc.           
2007–2012
www.fuusa.org                 
$600,000
CBAE
First Choice Pregnancy Resource Center
2005–2008
$435,419
CBAE
Henderson County HELP Center, Inc.
2006–2011
$426,316
CBAE
Laredo Independent School District
2005–2008
$520,725
CBAE
Worth the Wait, Inc.
2007–2012
$593,289
CBAE
Austin Learning Academy
2007–2012
$473,000
AFLA
Baptist Child and Family Services
2007–2012
$300,000
AFLA
Fifth Ward Enrichment Program
2007–2012
$475,000
AFLA

 
 
Adolescent Health Contact[57]
Melanie Babin
Texas Department of State Health Services
1100 W. 49th Street
Austin, TX 78756
Phone: (512) 458-7111
 
 
 
Texas Organizations that Support Comprehensive Sexuality Education

ACLU of Texas
P.O. Box 12905
Austin, TX 78711
Phone: (512) 478-7300
NARAL Pro-Choice Texas
P.O. Box 684602
Austin, TX 78768
Phone: (512) 462-1661
 
Planned Parenthood of Houston
and Southeast Texas
3601 Fannin Street
Houston, TX 77004
Phone: (713) 522-6363
www.pphouston.org
 
Planned Parenthood of North Texas
7424 Greenville Avenue, Suite 206
Dallas, TX 75231
Phone: (214) 363-2004
 
 
Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and
South Central Texas
104 Babcock Road
San Antonio, TX 78201
Phone: (210) 736-2244
 
Planned Parenthood of Texas Capital Region
201 East Ben White Boulevard
Austin, TX 78704
Phone: (512) 275-0171
 
Texas Freedom Network
P.O. Box 1624
Austin, TX 78767
Phone: (512) 322-0545
 
 
 
Women’s Health and Family Planning Association of Texas
P.O. Box 3868
Austin, TX 78764
Phone: (512) 448-4857
 

Texas Organizations that Oppose Comprehensive Sexuality Education

Aim for Success
P.O. Box 550336
Dallas, TX 75355
Phone: (972) 422-2322
 
Free Market Foundation
903 East 18th Street, Suite 230
Plano, TX 75074
Phone: (972) 423-8889
 
Life Dynamics
204 Cardinal Drive
Denton, TX 76209
Phone: (940) 380-8800
 
The Medical Institute
1101 South Capital of Texas Highway, Building B, Suite 100
Austin, TX 78746
Phone: (512) 328-6269
 
Texas Alliance for Life
2026 Guadalupe Street
Austin, TX 78705
Phone: (512) 477-1244
 
Texas Right To Life Committee
6776 Southwest Freeway, Suite 430
Houston, TX 77074
Phone: (713) 782- LIFE
 
Wonderful Days
3200 Riverfront, Suite 100
Fort Worth, TX 76107
Phone: (817) 335-5000
 
 

 
Newspapers in Texas[58]

Austin American-Statesman
Newsroom
305 S. Congress Avenue
Austin, TX 78704
Phone: (512) 445-1718
 
Austin Chronicle
Newsroom
4000 N I H 35
Austin, TX 78751
Phone: (512) 454-5766
 
Beaumont Enterprise
Newsroom
380 Main Street
Beaumont, TX 77701
Phone: (409) 833-3311
 
Corpus Christi Caller-Times
Newsroom
820 N. Lower Broadway Street
Corpus Christi, TX 78401
Phone: (361) 866-3600
 
Dallas Morning News
Newsroom
508 Young Street
Dallas, TX 75202
Phone: (214) 977-8222
 
El Paso Times
Newsroom
El Paso, TX 79901
Phone: (915) 546-6119
 
Fort Worth Star-Telegram
Newsroom
400 W. 7th Street
Fort Worth, TX 76102
Phone: (817) 390-7400
 
Houston Chronicle
Newroom
801 Texas Avenue
Houston, TX 77210
Phone: (713) 362-7171
Longview News-Journal
Newsroom
320 E. Methvin Street
Longview, TX 75601
Phone: (903) 237-7777
 
Lubbock Avalanche-Journal
Newsroom
710 Avenue J
Lubbock, TX 79401
Phone: (806) 762-8844
 
San Antonio Express-News
Newsroom
Avenue E at Third Street
San Antonio, TX 78205
Phone: (210) 250-3171
 

       
 


[1] This refers to the federal government’s fiscal year, which begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, Fiscal Year 2007 began on October 1, 2007 and ended on September 30, 2008. 
[2] Unless otherwise cited, all statistical information comes from: Danice K. Eaton, et. al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007,” Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57.SS-4 (6 June 2008), accessed 4 June 2008, <http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm>.
[3] “Mission Statement,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/about_us/mission.htm>.
[4] “Vision and Impact,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/about_us/about_us.htm>.
[5] “About the President,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/about_us/founder.htm>.
[6] Ibid.
[7] “Abstinence training is character training,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/teens/article_017.htm>.
[8] “Resource Links,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/resources/res_links.htm>.
[9] “Public Service Announcement”, Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/resources/psa_videos.htm#>. 
[10] “What The Experts Are Saying About Condoms,” Abstinence America, (2005), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/teens/article_008.htm>; <http://www.abstinenceamerica.org/teens/article_008_chart.htm>.
[11] Rachel Winer, Ph.D., “Condom Use and the Risk of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young Women,” New England Journal of Medicine 354.25 (2006): 2645-2654.
[12] “About Us,” Austin LifeCare (ALC), accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.austinlifecare.com/about_us.htm>.
[13] “About Us,” After Abortion Care, accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.austinlifecare.com/acare/about_us.htm>.
[14] Brenda Major et al, “Report of the APA Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion,” American
Psychological Association, (13 August 2008) accessed 8 October 2008, <http://www.apa.org/releases/abortion-report.pdf >.
[15] “Project Summary,” Colorado ISD/Mitchell County Abstinence Project, Texas Department of State Health Services, accessed 17 October 2008, <http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/abstain/contractors/ColoradoISD.pdf>.
[16] Kris Frainie, Why kNOw Abstinence Education Program Teacher’s Manual, (Chattanooga, TN: Why kNow Abstinence Education Programs, A Division of AAA Women’s Services, 2002). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Why kNOw at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/reviews/WhyKnow.html>.
[17]  Joneen Krauth-Mackenzie, WAIT (Why Am I Tempted) Training, Second Edition (Greenwood Village, CO: WAIT Training, undated).  For more information, see SIECUS’ review of WAIT Training at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
[18] “About RCY,” Shannon Health and Wellness, accessed 16 October 2008, <http://www.rightchoices4youth.org/>.
[19] “Teens,” Shannon Health and Wellness, accessed 16 October 2008, < http://www.rightchoices4youth.org/>.
[20] Bruce Cook, Choosing the Best (Marietta, GA: Choosing the Best, Inc., 2001-2007).
[21] Patricia Sulak, Worth the Wait (Temple, TX: Scott & White Memorial Hospital, 2003). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of Worth the Wait at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>.
[22] “Links,” Shannon Health and Wellness, accessed 16 October 2008, http://www.rightchoices4youth.org/.
[23] “Teens,” Shannon Health and Wellness.
[24] “Resources – Websites,” Austin LifeGuard, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://www.austinlifeguard.com/resources_websites.htm>.
[25] “Abortion,” Austin LifeGuard, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://www.austinlifeguard.com/abortion.htm>.
[26] Ibid.
[27] “Love, Sex and Dating,” Austin LifeGuard, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://www.austinlifeguard.com/GuyQuiz.htm> ; <http://www.austinlifeguard.com/GirlQuiz.htm>.
[28] Rose Fuller et al., FACTS and Reason (Portland, OR: Northwest Family Services, 2000); Rose Fuller, et al., I’m in Charge of the FACTS (Portland, OR: Northwest Family Services, 2000). For more information, see SIECUS’ review of FACTS at <http://www.communityactionkit.org/curricula_reviews.html>. 
[29] Peter Bearman and Hannah Brückner “Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and the Transition to First Intercourse.” American Journal of Sociology 106.4 (2001): 859-912; Peter Bearman and Hannah Brückner, “After the promise: The STD consequences of adolescent virginity pledges,” Journal of Adolescent Health 36.4 (2005): 271-278.
[30] “Links,” East Texas Abstinence Program, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://teach2wait.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=51>.
[31] About the Heritage Foundation, The Heritage Foundation, accessed 19 January 2005, <http://www.heritage.org/about/>.
[32]Before The Talk: Dealing with Our Past,” East Texas Abstinence Program, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://teach2wait.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=63>.
[33] “About Focus on the Family,” Focus on the Family, accessed 1 October 2008, < <http://www.focusonthefamily.com/about_us.aspx>.
[34] “Abstinence/ Renewed Abstinence,” East Texas Abstinence Program, accessed 18 October 2008, <http://teach2wait.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=70&Itemid=39>.
[35] “David’s TV spot,” East Texas Abstinence Program, Virginity Rules, (13 August 2007), accessed 18 October, 2008, <http://www.virginityrules.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=30&Itemid=29>.
[36] “Bradley’s TV Spot,” East Texas Abstinence Program, Virginity Rules, (13 August 2007), accessed 18 October, 2008, <http://www.virginityrules.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=29>.
[37] “Swag,” East Texas Abstinence Program, Virginity Rules, (13 August 2007), accessed 18 October, 2008, <http://www.virginityrules.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=section&id=13&Itemid=40>.
[38] “What Is The Medical Institute for Sexual Health?,” The Medical Institute, (2007), accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.medinstitute.org/content.php?name=aboutmi>.
[39] Educational Guidance Institute, 990 Form, Fiscal Year 2006, accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2006/742/627/2006-742627071-034780b7-9.pdf>.
[40] The Medical Institute, (2007), accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.medinstitute.org/>.
[41] “Hooked Uncovers the Hidden Dangers of Teen Sex,” The Medical Institute, (2007), accessed 19 October 2008,   <http://www.medinstitute.org/content.php?name=Leahy>.
[42] Ibid.
[43] “Nonmarital pregnancy,” The Medical Institute, (2007), accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.medinstitute.org/content.php?name=nonmaritalPregnancy>.
[44] The Attack on Abstinence Education: Fact or Fallacy? , The Medical Institute, (2007), accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.medinstitute.org/includes/downloads/Santellirevised.pdf>.
[45] Douglas Kirby, No Easy Answers (Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1997); Douglas Kirby, Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2001); David Satcher, The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior, June 2001.; Douglas Kirby, Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Washington: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, November 2007).
[46] Douglas Kirby, Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Washington: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, November 2007) ; Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues, (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press/Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 3 August 2005), accessed 30 August 2005, <http://pewforum.org/publications/surveys/social-issues-05.pdf>.
[47] Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues, (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press/Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 3 August 2005), accessed 30 August 2005, <http://pewforum.org/publications/surveys/social-issues-05.pdf>.
[48] Worth the Wait, IRS 990 Form, 2006, p. 1.
[49] “About Worth the Wait,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=about>.
[50] “What do YOU Want 4 YOUR Life?,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=your-life>.
[51] “Waiting Means...FREEDOM,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=freedom>.
[52] “Boundaries,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=boundaries>.
[53] “Reduction vs. Avoidance,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008,   <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=reduction-vs-avoidance>.
[54] Ibid.
[55] “Stay Informed,” Worth the Wait, Inc., accessed 19 October 2008, <http://www.worthwait.org/cms/index.php?page=stay-informed>.
[56] “About Us,” National Abstinence Education Association, accessed 10 October 2008, <http://www.abstinenceassociation.org/about_us/index.html>.
[57] SIECUS has identified this person as a state-based contact for information on adolescent health and if applicable, abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. 
[58] This section is a list of major newspapers in your state with contact information for their newsrooms. This list is by no means exhaustive and does not contain the local level newspapers which are integral to getting your message out to your community. SIECUS strongly urges you to follow stories about the issues that concern you on the national, state, and local level by using an internet news alert service such as Google alerts, becoming an avid reader of your local papers, and establishing relationships with reporters who cover your issues. For more information on how to achieve your media goals visit the SIECUS Community Action Kit.
National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education National Coalition to Support Sexuality Education